Monday, September 30, 2019

Community policing and Traditional policing Essay

History reveals that crime an awful act that people would not like to be a victim of. Police, therefore, play a significant role in ensuring that crime rates are reduced. Community policing and traditional policing are important aspects when it comes to issues of security and dealing with criminals (Kappeler & Gaines, 201, p. 89). Community policing requires that approaches to serious crimes be done in creative and innovative ways to ensure that there is long-term improvement in terms of security. In community policing, all crimes are treated as serious social problems and are dealt with accordingly. This kind of policing is not concerned about eradicating crime. Furthermore, the number of arrests or the crime rates is not the measure of success (Kappeler & Gaines, 201, p. 89). Community policing is concerned about ensuring that society provides opportunities for people to engage in meaningful business. Young people are often targeted because they are prone to becoming victims. Therefore, this is aimed at ensuring that future crimes rates reduce. On the other hand, traditional policing dictates rules and law to the public but are not on the ground to work with the community. They ensure that they respond quickly in case of a crime and this is a measure of their success. They also focus on identification of criminals, apprehending and prosecuting them. Traditional policing apprehends the criminals using the evidence that is collected at the crime scene. Both community and traditional policing complement each other. Community policing is aimed at ensuring that crimes rates are reduced through engaging the society to enter into gainful employment. Their work is to ensure that people live well with one another, while traditional policing is able to come in and assist in areas where crimes have been done by gathering evidence to assist them to apprehend criminals and take them to court to answer charges. The strategy of community policing is a design that may displace traditional policing. The role of the community policing is to ensure that there is law  and order and to deter any criminal activities from happening. Further, community policing is aimed at ensuring that people engage in constructive work. This strategy is aimed at reducing the rates of crimes hence slowly doing away with the traditional policing. Once the rate of crime reduces, traditional policing will have no role to play. Community policing strategy is constructed to help in creating organizational ethical behaviors. Ethics helps an organization to engage in activities that are in tandem with the moral obligation and the expectations of the society (Ortmeier & Meese, 2009, p. 254). Community policing is a force that does not cause anxiety in the community, but perform their duties diligently by relating well with the members of the community. Therefore, they assist the community members especially the youths with ideas and this makes them shun away from involvement in criminal activities. The major role of community policing is to ensure that society upholds to positive behaviors and moral standards. It helps to foster moral behaviors among the people. People should be able to live well with others and also show respect. Community policing is not concerned about the number of arrests they make but the magnitude at which they are able to change and transform the society into a better society. Therefore, this policing organization is built and performs its functions based on ethical standards. References: Gaines, L.. Kappeler, V. (2001). Policing in America (p. 640). Anderson Publishing. Ortmeier, PJ and Edwin Meese (2010). Leadership, Ethics and Policing; 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Graduate School

I have had many dreams about my future and where I would go in life. In all my dreams I do in fact attend graduate school. This is so because I would like to attain a job that requires more than just a four year degree, so that I may receive a high paying salary. The benefits from an advanced degree are numerous. I would like to obtain an advanced degree because unlike undergraduate school, graduate school is more of a narrower field of study. The schooling may be more difficult and more work but I do think it will pay off in the end. As a graduate student I will develop clearer goals as to what I want for my future.As a graduate student I will create many opportunities for myself to receive practical experience in my field of study. Learning in an atmosphere where the professors and other students love my field of study just as much as I do will be truly refreshing. It is also no secret that most companies look for advanced education beyond a bachelor’s degree because a gradu ate degree is more prominent. With a graduate degree I will most likely earn a considerably higher salary than if I just settle with a bachelor’s degree. I would like to succeed in my lifetime to become wealthy.With an advanced degree I will have opportunities for advancement over than I solely had my bachelor’s degree. I would like to be one day be a hospital administrator or a manager of my branch. Having an advanced education will help me achieve this goal. I have a dream of becoming a successful person that will have financial stability. I would love to eventually earn a graduate degree that will help me further my career. I would love to earn a degree that will give me more mobility in my career. There will be more hard work and effort put forth in an advanced degree but after all the time is put in the rewards will be great.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

My ideal school Essay

Recently, I made a list of what I think my perfect school would look like. As I began developing the list, I was struck by two things: Firstly, how most of it was about making school more student-centered, and secondly, that I didn’t mention technology once. For me, this second trend bears a little more fleshing out. I would never say that there is no place for technology in education, far from it†¦ But I think the place of technology is to support a more student-focused, relevant and engaging methodology. It is the ‘how’, not the ‘what’. For me, technology in the ideal school plays a supporting role – and it is a vital one, since my dream school relies on it to work, but it is still only there as a means to support the growth and flourishing of our students. The specific technologies will change and evolve, but once a school has reliable and fast Internet connectivity, other technologies can grow around it. Just as if our students are given primary status over the syllabus, everything else will fall into place. Finally, some of these ideas you will recognise as eminating from leading education gurus such as Sir Ken Robinson. For this, I make no apologies: I have embraced the learning revolution! With that in mind, here’s what I think the ideal school should be like: (Please feel free to comment and add your own below.) The perfect school: The primary focus is on tinkering, experimenting, problem-solving and making mistakes, rather than getting content into heads. ‘Remembering’ is very much a required skill, but it is closer to the bottom of the pyramid than it is currently in most schools. The whole school environment is challenging, supportive, caring and aimed at personal growth. Students are encouraged to feel as proud of their failures and the lessons learnt from them as they are of their successes. The teachers are passionate about upgrading their skills and embracing the most effective methodologies. The priority in lessons is about engagement and collaboration. There is a focus on helping students to discover their ‘element’, or the thing they feel they can spend their lives  doing. (This is what ‘creativity’ in education really means.) There is no hierarchy of subjects. Art, Drama, Music and the Humanities are treated with the same reverance as Maths, Science and Langua ges. Subject boundaries are also blurred and intermingled. Lessons are customized to the individual, rather than a one-size fits all. Students have a significant amount of input into the design and delivery of lessons. Learning spaces are orientated and arranged around the comfort and learning of the student, not the priorities of the teacher. Enrichment opportunities, running both parallel to the school day, and taking place after school are an essential part of the learning process. I acknowledge that teachers can implement many of these in their own classrooms very quickly, but the most important ones require a systemic shift. I would like to challenge our school leaders to ponder this list and to attempt to put in place the policies and procedures required to make every school the perfect school.

Friday, September 27, 2019

The essential factors in the achievement of organizational goals Essay

The essential factors in the achievement of organizational goals - Essay Example It's My Bike recounted the experience of Debbie Martin as the new Supplier Quality Manager for the commercial product division of Cold Air Corporation. In this new position, Debbie encountered problems in the organization where a $250 bike is primarily involved. The bike was purchased by her predecessor and was currently utilized by her subordinate, Ronnie in order to inspect the incoming inputs in the plant's production line. As the company changed the supplier for one of its components, Ronnie's inspection became more frequent which consequently led to more frequent use of the bike. However, Cold Air Corporation is also currently undergoing a product transition handled by the Airhandler Quality managed by Steve Gregg. Because the distance from the Airhandler's office and the components for the new production line necessitated the use of the bike, Gregg borrowed the bike for his team's activities. This became the highlight of the case as Ronnie was quite hesitant in lending the bike to the other department while Airhandler Quality team argued that they are currently handling the most important project in the plant so they should take possession of the bike and Debbie should buy a new one. This paper will take a look at three problems encountered in... What seems to be one of the major causes of the recent misunderstanding was the real purpose of the bike. It should be noted that the conflict have arisen because there seems to be a vague designation of the bike. It was stated in the case that the bike was purchased by Debbie's predecessor in order to "aid in transporting testing materials and small samples from one end of the plant to another." However, there seems to be an inefficient communication within the organization as to where the bike should be used for. This can be indicated by the following situations: 1. the bike has been taken and repainted by the metal works department without the knowledge of Debbie or anyone in her department; 2. the bike was borrowed by the Airhandler Quality team for their own purposes and refused to return it without Debbie's formal request; and 3. Steve Gregg wants the bike to be utilized for his department as he is handling the most important project in the plant which will necessitate Debbie to buy a new bike for Ronnie's inspection. At the start of the case, it was stated that Debbie's boss is "not an easy person to work for" since he expects his employees to have a "take charge attitude and avoid bothering him with trivial issues." Taking this into account, Debbie should try to resolve the problem at hand first before resorting to his immediate superior. It is seemingly wrong that Debbie should bother his supervisor due to a $250 bike if he had given them responsibility and accountability in solving "trivial" problems within their department. In order to solve the conflict within the organization, Debbie should set the primary purpose which the bike will serve. As it was purchased by her

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Management Information system (journal) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Management Information system (journal) - Essay Example Infra-structure became the foundation for serving customers, working with suppliers and managing internal business processes System Design Development and Architecture, on the other hand, considered the relevant and crucial interplay of hardware, software, people or human resources, culture and processes to ensure effective implementation towards the achievement of organizational goals. Through designing appropriate strategies that incorporate details on systems design and architecture, organizations are able to tap internal resources and develop core competencies, as required. One learned from the module that the basic process of systems development involves defining the project, creating a model of the current system, deriving a model for the new system, measuring the costs and benefits of all alternatives, selecting the best option, designing the new system, completing the specific programming functions, installing and testing the new system, and completing a post-implementation audit (Laudon and Laudon: Chapter 8). By recognizing the crucial details that go into systems design, business and IT practit ioners could apply concepts learned in real life contemporary

TELEVISION STUDIES Library Research Project Paper

TELEVISION STUDIES Library Project - Research Paper Example They therefore designed some fieldwork involving 20 under-two year olds, ten male and ten female, who watched the same episode of Teletubbies in their usual home or playgroup environment while being video-recorded. The tapes were then synchronised with the actual Teletubby recording, in such a way that the child’s movements, verbalizations and expressions can be seen as they relate frame by frame with the program. The tapes were analysed according to criteria of attention level, parasocial responses, TV literacy response, verbal echoing, cognitive response, pleasure, action around the TV set, and sharing with a companion. The study made various conclusions regarding the impressive attention spans that were demonstrated in particular sections of the program and the good basis that this data delivered for further â€Å"theorizing the interactivity of our young respondents with media texts† (p. 334). This article provides an excellent methodological model, based on observa tion and simple technology, which could be very useful for those wishing to explore issues around media designed for the under two age group or any other group who may not be able to verbalize their responses effectively. This chapter from an academic book was written by a Professor from Amsterdam in the Netherlands who leads a research center for research on children, adolescents and the media. It traces in detail the way that a child’s early development levels relate to the way that the child interacts with various media. What is interesting about this chapter is that it shows things from the child’s point of view, and warns against an adult, or parent, perception of what the child is doing or what the program is trying to do. So, for example, programs like Teletubbies which appear boring, repetitive and monotone to an adult, are in fact very sophisticated media texts which use carefully chosen stimuli like

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Personal Statement for Graduate Admissions in Art History

For Graduate Admissions in Art History - Personal Statement Example My request for a chance to undertake a postgraduate program in Art History is not based on a yearning for a title of a postgraduate, but rather on my fervor of delving into Art History, thereby actualizing my career objective of working at a gallery, in the management and art niche. I have always been interested in Art. My mother reinforced my propensity for creativity and music and from childhood, I liked creating things, embroidering and painting and did various kinds of art. As I tried to understand Art, I developed interest in Art History. This interest influenced my choice of undergraduate program: I chose to pursue Bachelor of Arts with a double Major in Art History/Management and a Minor in German, which is perhaps the main strongest facet of my application. This academic program not only related to my career interest directly but also constituted a significant basis for me, providing me with tools for further working in the management niche in an art gallery where I am curren tly. My academic background has provided me with significant fundamental knowledge, which, on my enrolment for this program, will be of great help. As aforementioned, I possess a Bachelor of Arts with a double Major in Art History/Management, and a Minor in German. I decided to minor in German for several reasons: it being a requirement for graduate schools and my intention of holding a position as an Art Historian and Researcher at one of the art galleries in Germany, where I am currently located. This was in the view of the fact that in the field of art history, German is deemed essential. German film classes including ‘From WWII to Unification’ and ‘Rise/Fall of Germany’ as well as reading German literature in ‘Advanced German Conversation’ course have boosted me in broadening my horizons in German literature and culture, thus improving my German. Other academic qualifications include a Certificate in

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Privacy in Biometrics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Privacy in Biometrics - Essay Example Although there are various advantages of using biometrics technology, such as its validity and authenticity and its wide-ranging utilization in passports, identity cards, attendance systems, etc. In the field of information technology, biometrics refers to â€Å"those technologies that measure and analyze human characteristics such as DNA, eye retina, irises, fingerprints, voice pattern, facial pattern and hand measurements† (Rouse, 2008). In this paper, the focus will remain on the use of fingerprints as the major characteristics for identifying a person. More importantly, the paper will include discussion and arguments regarding some of the issues that arise due to usage of biometrics publicly (Woodward, 2003, pp. 23-25). Although biometrics has resulted in number of benefits to the organizations in terms of identity management, however, the advancement of this technology and the application of this technology on public level have raised various questions regarding the accur acy of this technology along with privacy and confidentiality of the data that has been one of the major issues related to biometrics. Expansion in the utilization of internet has been one of the foremost reasons that have resulted in greater utilization of biometrics in various parts of the world. Nowadays, biometrics has become one of the most suitable and affordable solution for organizations to identify their employees for identification purpose at entry and exit locations, as well as during attendance on daily basis. At the same time, biometrics has also helped e-commerce industry to progress by ensuring security of data in finance-related organizations such as banks, shopping centers, etc that now use biometrics technology (Zhang, 2006, pp. 31-38) to prevent any fraudulent actions that usually occur in absence of such technologies. One of the basic reasons of huge popularity of biometrics technology has been its use by the law enforcement agencies around the world that has res ulted in its usage on mass level. While this utilization became the reason of its popularity, it has resulted in initiation of debates regarding the confidentiality and security of the data; in other words, data and information management by the law enforcement agencies and various governments globally (Ex-sight, n.d.). Discussion As mentioned earlier in the paper, biometrics while providing enormous number of advantages in terms of identification and verification of individuals in terms of their characteristics, it has resulted in various ethical, social, and professional issues that have been the major focus of this paper. Most importantly, personal privacy is the foremost issue that has remained under debate related to biometrics for a long time. Analysis of literature (Campisi, 2013, pp. 11-17) has indicated that although biometrics technology allows organizations and law enforcement agencies to identify an individual and trace a criminal out of the huge population, it is a dire ct failure to comply with human rights regulations for privacy and anonymity. At various platforms, there have been protests regarding the inappropriate usage of biometric data by law enforcement agencies, which results in an adverse impact on right of freedom of the public. Besides breach of personal privacy, biometrics techno

Monday, September 23, 2019

Causes of War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Causes of War - Essay Example   There have always been numerous reports about war and conflicts in different parts of the world with regrettable outcomes. A war can occur between groups of people, countries or even regions. Each of the mentioned kinds and every particular case have their specific reasons for the occurrence. Although quite different, roots of the war are always associated with a kind of a conflict. It, therefore, means that a war comes up as a result of a conflict between the two distinct parties starting a confrontation, regardless of what constituted a ground for the appearance of a conflict or its further scale. As a whole, both the variety of possible causes of war and their kinds are important topics to be investigated and analyzed.   Countries can enter an international conflict finding themselves in antagonism. (Ikenbery 173). In this case, the whole population of a country appears to be involved and the victory is ensured by armies fighting in the front lines and citizens backing them in a variety of ways. There are numbers of factors that encourage conflicts to take place and those that may prevent a conflict from erupting. Some events are known to lead to an occurrence of war and other events can bring about peace and reconciliation, preventing conflicts to come in. Naturally, consequences and effects of wars, particularly civil wars, are visible. Examples of both, short term and long term ones, which impose their effects on all the parties involved, could be seen in different nations.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ensuring quality websites Essay Example for Free

Ensuring quality websites Essay Internet is an ever expanding medium. The number of users of the World Wide Web colloquially called as the internet has grown to over 1. 02 billion and includes 15 percent population of the World. (World Internet Usage, 2006). This is slated to expand even more rapidly hereafter as it is proving to be an ideal medium for all types of social, business, government and informational transactions. Cyber Rater is a web site rating service which will assess web sites based on their quality, reliability and the timeliness with which they provide information to the user. The number of web sites is increasing exponentially. A survey by Netcraft for June 2006 reported an increase of 3. 96 million sites in one month between May to June. (Webserver Survey, 2006). However the plethora of sites on virtually all subjects has created a problem for the user, as he is unable to assess the efficacy and accuracy of the information provided on the site. Cyber rater will attempt to this void, by rating sites and providing these with a verification certificate based on authenticity, quality and speed in providing the information to the user. Cyber Rater will be a web based organization, thereby the initial infra structure cost will be restricted to computers and other information technology assets to facilitate speedy access of the net, register the sites, assess these and provide certification. The business is proposed to be started by December 2006 and a healthy return is expected with break even point reached by December 2007. Mission Statement Our Mission. To facilitate web users in instantly assessing the quality of a web site. Grading web sites on each subject based on quality will be a key facet of the mission. To create excellence on the web by generating a hierarchy of gradation for web sites will be inclusive in the overall mission. To improve the overall content on the web will be the underlying theme of the mission. Needs Proliferation of web sites as well as the large number of users of the web has created a new market for certification of the best sites based on quality and accuracy of content, timeliness in publication and credibility. This will provide a service to both the user as well as the web site provider. While the user will be able to gravitate to the best web site on a subject, the provider will attempt to improve his content based on authenticity of information, the assessed market needs of the users and the latest web and communication technologies available. This will greatly facilitate all users such as researchers and students who will get a certified source, the e purchaser, and an authenticated, best bargain without cheating and the business person timely information of opportunities available for commerce to beat the competition. A certified web site rating system will greatly improve the overall quality of the web as it will assist in establishing uniform standards, motivate investments in using state of the art technologies by web sites, adoption of best practices and sustained support will be available through government policies. Objectives The objectives of Cyber Rater will flow from its mission which is to facilitate web users in assessing the quality of a web site thereby enabling them to home on to the best in each category. The objectives will be broken down into three criteria as given below:- Objectives Related to Users Objective 1. To provide the user information of the quality of the web site he is accessing to do commerce, interact socially or merely to gain information on a subject. Objective 2. To provide knowledge workers assurance of the information that is being accessed by them on the web. This will overcome the present lack of credibility of most web sources for research. Objective 3. To provide the user with authentic and original information, free of copy right, trade mark or patent infringement. This will avoid the embarrassment as well possible legal action at a later stage. Objectives Related To Web Sites Objective 1. To provide a forum for quality web sites to propagate their value on the web. This will also enable them an opportunity to increase their popularity and revenues. Objective 2. To generate impetus for improving the overall quality of web sites and web content by creating a hierarchy of excellence. Objective 3. To disfranchise those web site providers who are not able to provide quality and authenticity to continue on the web. This will come about by their non certification, non access over a period by the user and thus a virtual demise due to infrequent access. Objectives Related to Business Objective 1. To follow the highest standards of ethics and values. This is essential to every rating agency and will enable maintenance of credibility and thus attract maximum business in the long term. Objective 2. To attract the best talent in the profession. This alone will ensure that the assessments made would maintain an even standard and are free from biases of lack of knowledge as well as judgment. Objective 3. To employ the best technologies available in the field and continue to constantly upgrade them. Objective 3. To ensure the financial viability of the business and break even within one year. References 1. Webserver Survey. 2006. June 2006 Webserver Survey. http://news. netcraft. com/archives/2006/06/04/june_2006_web_server_survey. html (24 June 2006). 2. World Internet Usage. 2006. Internet Usage Statistics: The Big Picture. http://www. internetworldstats. com/stats. htm. (24 June 2006).

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Immigration In The United States Of America History Essay

Immigration In The United States Of America History Essay During its first hundred years, the United States had a laissez-faire policy toward immigration-no limits. Federal, state, and local governments, private employers, shipping companies and railroads, and churches promoted immigration to the United States. For example, subsidizing railroad construction led to the recruitment of immigrant workers by private railroad companies. High tariffs kept out European manufactured goods and thus created a demand for more workers in American factories. The federal government relied on immigrants to staff the army-immigrants were about a third of the regular soldiers in the 1840s, and an even higher proportion of many state militias. The Door-Ajar era approach began in 1870s. There were popular movements to restrict the immigration of particular groups perceived as threatening. Congress barred the entry of convicts and prostitutes in 1875, and the Immigration Act of 1882 for the first time prohibited immigration from a particular country- China-at the behest of urban workers in California who felt threatened by unfair competition. ( ) Immigration from China was illegal for most of the next 60 yearsEven though a weak economy and increasing immigration led to restrictions on immigration, foreign policy considerations delayed the implementation of these restrictions. The Door-Ajar policy started to gain momentum after 1890. Restrictions and attempts to impose restrictions were the product of a fluctuating economy. But the major reason for the growing opposition to immigration was its composition. Whereas the majority of the old immigrant came from Western Europe, most of the new immigrants came from Eastern and Sout hern Europe. The German, British and the other Western Europe immigrants who were Protestant overall, were replaces by Russians, Polish and Italian immigrants, the majority of whom were Greek-Orthodox, Catholic or Jewish. One of the most important aspects of this era was the attempt to block immigration from Eastern and Southern Europe. Most of the efforts were totally unsuccessful. The shift to the more restrictive Pet-door era started in 1917, when, after numerous attempts, Congress finally passed the literacy test bill and in addition to the literacy test, the immigration act of 1917 added excludable classes, raised the head tax, and introduced the power to deport aliens convicted of certain offenses. A couple of years later, Congress imposed the first quantitative restrictions on immigration, limiting arrivals to 3 percent of the foreign-born persons of each nationality present in the United States in 1910. The base year was soon pushed back to 1890, before most third-wave immigrants had arrived, when northern and western Europeans made up a larger proportion of the population. Restrictions on permanent immigration reached a peak during and after World War I. However, wars also generate support for temporary migration. World War I created a demand for additional manpower because part of the labor force was drafted, another part was employed in war industries. World War II, like World War I had an impact on immigration policy. First, the war increased conformity and anti-immigration sentiment, leading to some restrictions on freedom of expression, potential immigrants and foreign-born citizens. Secondly, the wartime need for manpower generated the recruitment of migrant workers. But the most important development during World War II was the growing influence of foreign policy considerations which led to the liberalization of U.S immigration policy. In the 1960s, the civil rights movement highlighted government discrimination against nonwhites, which influenced in a negative way U.S. immigration policy. President John Kennedy proposed eliminating the national origins system in the early 1960s. In 1965, Congress moved to eliminate racial and ethnic discrimination in American immigration policy. It managed to do that offering priority to immigrants with relatives in the United States who petitioned for their admission inside the country. Migrants from Asia were treated like other foreigners seeking to immigrate and, for the first time, quantitative restrictions were placed on immigration from the Western Hemisphere. Until the 1980s, U.S. immigration law could be described as a complex system that is in a continue change looking to reach the needs of each generation in particular. The accelerating pace of global change affected migration patterns all over the world, and that is why US Congress responded with three major changes in immigration laws between 1980 and 1990. The first change was in the definition of refugees. The 1951 UN Refugee Convention defined a refugee as a person outside his or her country of citizenship and unwilling to return because of a well-founded fear of persecution due to the persons race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion(). During the Cold War, the United States defined refugees as persons fleeing communist dictatorship or political violence in the Middle East. But, the United States adopted the UN definition with the passage of the Refugee Act of 1980(). The number of refugees resettled is determined each year by the president in consultation with Congress. The second major policy change aimed to reduce illegal immigration. During the 1960s, the Border Patrol apprehended 1.6 million foreigners; during the 1970s, apprehensions rose five-fold to 8.3 million. After studying the effects of illegal immigration commissions concluded that illegal migrants adversely affected unskilled American workers and undermined the rule of law. They urged the government to continue the effort to reduce migration in United States. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) recorded a historic deal between those who wanted to prevent more illegal migration and those who wanted to legalize the status of illegal foreigners who already are on United States territory. The most important upgrades that The Immigration Reform and Control Act brought are as it follows. Required employers to attest to their employees immigration status, and granted amnesty to certain illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982 and had resided there continuously. Also it made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants (immigrants who do not possess lawful work authorization).Last, it granted a path towards legalization to certain agricultural seasonal workers and immigrants who had been continuously and illegally present in the United States since January 1, 1982. Immigration remained a high-profile political issue in the early 1990s. People were less tolerant of unauthorized immigrants, who were usually in low-skilled jobs. California Governor Pete Wilson won re-election in 1994 in part by endorsing Proposition 187, an initiative that would have excluded illegal migrants from state-funded services, including public schools. Concern about immigration, terrorism, and welfare contributed to three major laws in 1996: The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (ATEDPA), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA). The Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act (EBSVERA) of 2002 required universities to keep better track of the foreign students they enrolled and heightened scrutiny of visa applicants from countries deemed sponsors of terrorism. Foreigners needing visas to enter the United States must be interviewed by consu lar officers abroad, and applications from most Middle Eastern countries are sent to Washington, D.C., to be checked against government databases to detect terrorists. The REAL ID Act of 2005 prohibits federal agencies from accepting drivers licenses issued by the 10 states that granted them to unauthorized foreigners. Perhaps the most important change after Sept. 11 was the creation of a new cabinet agency, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The Immigration and Naturalization Service was moved from the U.S. Department of Justice to DHS and divided into three different agencies. One focused on border enforcement and inspecting persons arriving in the United States, one oversaw enforcement of immigration laws, and the third handled applications for immigration benefits. In Britain most immigration has been permanent. British immigration control policy has been influenced during time by different elements like the volume of dissimilar immigration, foreign policy considerations, external threats and wars. From its beginnings until the early twentieth century, Britain had a liberal immigration policy. Great Britain regulated immigration only twice in this period. First regulation was the 1872-1873 Alien Act. It was phrased as a temporary measure and also it was renewed at intervals until 1926. The second restriction on immigration arrived in 1848. Political instability in Europe generated a flow of political refugees, whose presence in England brought several disturbances. A good example is the 1792 case when the external threat represented by those refugees led to the approval of the Aliens Removal Act. This Act gave to the Home Secretary and the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland the power to deport any foreigner against whom written allegations had been mad e. Britain kept a liberal immigration policy until the early twentieth century. This policy was facilitated by the limited immigration into Britain, by the similarity between most of the immigrants and the local population and by foreign policy considerations(Smith1981). In 1905 Parliament passed the Aliens Immigration Act. One of the reasons was the unprecedented influx of Jewish immigrants. The 1905 Aliens Immigration act was administrated in a very liberal fashion by the liberal government that came into power the following year. Nevertheless, the act stayed on the books and its significance lay in the breach with the principle of the previous eighty years that Britain should be freely open to immigration from overseas. (Rees 1979). World War I produced the next restriction on immigration to Britain. In August that year, The House of Commons passed the Aliens Restriction Act. The 1914 legislation which was much tougher than the 1905 Act, gave the Home Secretary powers to prohibit the entry of immigrants and to deport them. It was the first time when aliens had to register with the police. The main object of 1914 act, as presented by the Home secretary was to secure the detention and removal of spies. It was renewed after the war by the Aliens Restriction Act of 1919. Even though during the 1920s and 1930s economic depression most of the countries restricted immigration, Britain avoided that to happen and more than that even emphasized its commitment to free migration within the Commonwealth. The direction of migration changed once Britain entered World War II and faced a shortage in manpower. After World War II the UK government faced an unprecedented situation. Britain was no longer seen as a top world power, and the concept of Commonwealth started to replace the notion of Empire. Immigration started to be seen by politicians as a opportunity to bring back the country to its previous international status. Humanitarian solidarity of 1939-45 and sponsored immigration of the 1945-62 were perceived a bit different. In order to obtain a clear conclusion it is advised to evaluate chronologically UK government response to colored immigration. Doing this the shifts in policy over time during that specific period will be very clear underlined. The relationship between immigrants and the state remain pretty much the same even though there were changes of administration and policy. A very interesting experience for the British government was the Post-war immigration issues. No doubt that traditionally until the late 1970s the UK had been considered by many a country of net immigrat ion. Anyway due to economic reasons immigration was actively supported as a matter of policy by the UK government starting with 1945. Two years later an independent economic survey was commissioned by the government. The results brought out that the general opinion was that, a useful contribution can be made by foreign labor. Also the survey revealed that the increasing of working population is does not have to be a temporary measure. The newly conceived National Health Service, London Transport and British Rail brought workers from the newly opened recruitment centers in West Indies to the UK but the numbers recruited in these ventures were relatively small to begin with, so they established a nucleus of ethnicity in certain areas. The foreign labor recommended in the 1947 government survey was not only for colored immigrants. A white core policy was instead in the minds of the authorities. In the next years following the war European immigrants were preferred to colored and the Government authorities ware scared of the workers solidarity and how it may affect the relationship with Westminster. After thirty years the records showed all the measures that were taken to block their entry in the UK. One good example is the delaying of issuing the passport so that the colored people could not work legally in the UK and the list continues. In the next year 1948, in The British Nationality Act it began the conceptual separation between British and Commonwealth citizenship and the UK immigration law was begging to rise. Therefore in the next years the visa restrictions for the coloured were taken out and an influx of blacks and Asians, approximately 14000 per annum came in the UK but , in 1962 most towns across the UK remained predominantly white only. In exception in the Wales a small numbers of coloured came and these people were found only in the docks of the capital. The government authorities did not respond properly to the increased number of immigrations and the media elevated the issue to an underserved status of national importance. The individual partisan policy issues clearly played a big role in the timing and manner of the execution of immigration legislation. For example in 1959 the elections were won by the Conservatives for the third time and as the traditional centre-right party of the UK it was no surprise that they should oversee the passing of the most stringent law against coloured immigrants, the 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act. It was clear that the law could be seen as a new government policy of moving the economic market to Europe at the beginning of the 1960, which necessitated a symbolic move away from the Commonwealth. David Childs said that Macmillan had a great success in convincing his colleagues of the need of this new road.In other order it was a fact that immigration legislation was motivated by external geo-strateg ic issues and not by the issues of numbers, facts and figures of arrivals into the country. Besides that, the British government acknowledged that its definition of nationality as it was written in the 1948 acct was old-fashioned. This was a good opportunity te begin the second phase of post-war legislation starting with the landmark 1962 Commonwealth act. This act enforced much more tight guidelines regarding entry to to UK. Racial undertones were clearly present as the Act was centred upon immigrants from the New Commonwealth and did not concern immigration from the Old Commonwealth or Ireland.( ). Obviously the British state was keen to legally underline the difference between being British and being a subject of the Empire. This action took place in order to protect what it perceived as a delicate domestic balance. As Jack Watson concludes; It was one thing to control immigration unlimited population growth would add to Britains social problems but the fierce criticism of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act, both at home and abroad, centred on the argument that it was di rected against immigration from the New Commonwealth and not against immigration in general. Yet in spite of the arrival of the concept of quotas into the political discourse regarding immigration the numbers of immigrants did not supported a huge change after 1962. Therefore, although the UK government responded to public opinion, a strong sense of ethnic superiority and political expediency, the reality of the matter remained that immigration, post 1945, was an economic and not a nationalistic issue. After the 1997 election UK immigration policy started a new chapter. The White Paper in 1998 showed a different and modern way of handling immigration and asylum . The paper claimed that Britain has lots of advantages from legal immigration. The new strategic way of thinking has been implemented on several different levels . The liberalizing aspects were completely non politic. It was underlined the need for skilled force, the decisive proof coming from various pieces of research . The refugee restrictions favoured by New Labour in its first item of legislation the Asylum and Immigration Act 1999 which involved abolition of cash benefits for asylum seekers and a strict policy of dispersal required a public mood of deep antipathy towards this group of people to allow it to be carried through. The consequences of depriving people of the possibility of any degree of self-determination in respect of their life in the UK, and off pushing them even further out of the mainstream of ordinary life, could easily be predicted. It would result in human rights violations (particularly in relation to the right to family life), economic hardship because of grossly inadequate levels of support though the voucher scheme, and an increase in racist attacks against a group of people so widely proclaimed as being unworthy of better treatment. The refugee support networks across the country soon came alive with accounts of how exactly these outcomes were coming about, right up to the point of serious acts of violence and even the murder of at least one asylum seeker. But no sooner was the evidence of these disastrous consequences accumulating, than a reaction to the reaction emerged amongst groups who developed sympathies with the asylum seekers. Faith groups lobbied ministers over the evidence of increasing financial hardship and the obvious suffering of refugee children. Teachers, and even police chiefs, went on record to complain against the deterioration of civil relations between ethnic groups in the school playground and the wider community. The British Medical Association expressed grave concern over the declining health of refugee communities, and the trades union movement, led by transport union leader Bill Morris, staged a revolt against the voucher scheme. Clearly, asylum seekers had their supporters and defende rs, and these tended to be most vocal in the social groups which the Labour government counted upon as their key supporters. In the early 1990, Britain stood out as a country that has reduced immigration to a unavoidable core of family reunification and asylum seekers, numbering no more than 50000 in one year. Since than, both policy an policy outcomes have reversed sharply. The labour government increased the number of work permits issued, promised to reform the Immigration act of 1971 in order to encourage primary immigration, an reevalueted citizenship through the proposed incorporation of citizenship of classes, language texts and naturalization ceremonies. The Labour party started to rethink its core strategy in the 4th semester of 2001 due to a cabinet change. The new Home Secretary from that time, David Blunkett can be considered the initiator of the strategy. In the same time with the new way of Labourss thinking, a change to a more pugnacious style of engagement with public opinion could be noted.( ).The September 11, a date that changed United Sates approach, was almost as important for UK and in the winter of 2002, a second White Paper appeared, this time punctuating the very complex issue of security. Surprisingly though, not the immigrants that were on their way coming to UK were the concern, but those who had finished their migration process recently an who believed of themselves as totally settled in Britain. The controverter problem of the naturalisation of long-settled immigrant communities came onto centre stage as Home Secretary Blunkett sought to open up a new debate about the extent to which these groups had assimilated the distinctive values of UK society. The background to this issue was provided by the summer riots in several northern English towns in 2001. Experts commenting on these developments opened up discussion about the absence of social cohesion revealed by these developments. The principle complaint of one of the most influential of these commentators Lord Herman Ousley was that poverty and lack of resources had prevented civic and other public authorities from addressing the grave problem of racial division, which was a prominent feature of these northern cities. In the White Paper, concerns of this nature were not so subtly transformed into criticism of immigrant communities themselves, for failing to take robust action to ensure their integration into mainstream society. Blunkett was also prepared to do more than had been done during Straws tutelage at the Home Office to force public discussion of economic migration. A whole chapter of the White Paper discussed the issue of working in the UK. The mood here was that government policy was allowing British employers to lead the world in vigorous competition for the brightest and the best amongst the global workforce. The reforms to the work permit scheme of the previous 18 months were set out in detail, and the substantial increase in the volume of people entering in these categories became the badge of success. In the competition to ensure that British business had all the resources it needed to come out on top, the Labour government would not accept second place. The White Paper thus framed the whole question of economic migration as being essentially a matter of business strategy, rather than anything to do with the rights of workers in increasingly globalised labour markets. Indeed, the White Paper wandered into the terrain of considering the clear demand for less skilled workers, and concluded that this would be dealt with by opening up channels for temporary, seasonal migration schemes, which have in practice been associated with the often ruthless exploitation of young foreign students. It is clear from the approach set out in the White Paper that those workers admitted to met local shortages in the informally-skilled sectors of tourism and hospitality industries, construction and agriculture, will not acquire such rights as family reunification, equality of treatment, or long-term settlement in the UK.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Parkinsons Disease and Tourettes Syndrome Essay -- Biology Essays Re

Parkinson's Disease and Tourette's Syndrome Parkinson's Disease is a literally crippling neurodegenerative disorder, manifested in about 1% of the aged population. People who have Parkinson's Disease gradually lose control of their movements; specific symptoms include, "tremor, slowness of movement, stiffness, difficulty in walking, and loss of balance." (1) Evidence strongly suggests that Parkinson's Disease is the result of severe cell loss in the substantia nigra. This brain structure is principally involved in the production of dopamine. (2) Dopamine, among other functions, is the neurotransmitter involved in initiation of movement. Hence, the link between dopaminergic cell loss and cessation of voluntary movement, as manifested in Parkinson's Disease, seems established. (3) However, the applicability of this link seems to not end with Parkinson's Disease. If a severe deficit in dopamine induces cessation of movement and baseline levels of dopamine make voluntary, normal movement possible, can an excess of dopamine, or inc reased effectiveness of dopamine, lead to involuntary manifestation of movement? Potentially, a marked excess, or increase in effectiveness, of dopamine will lead to a loss of control of movement, just as a shortage of dopamine will. However, in the former case, movement should be involuntarily manifested. If such manifestations indeed were observed, it would be interesting to see if, in fact, dopamine excess, or dopamine at all, plays a role. Indeed, involuntary movements, commonly referred to as tics, are the primary symptoms of a disease called Tourette's Syndrome. The syndrome, named after the person who first described it, Gilles de la Tourette, "is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characteri... ...8,9,10) It is noteworthy, that these drugs, when used at excessive dosages, may lead to side effects such as muscular rigidity, tremor, slow movement, and other symptoms, which are very similar to the symptoms accompanying Parkinson's. Also, these side effects can be counteracted by administration of l-Dopa, a drug commonly given to overcome severe 'freezing' in Parkinson's patients. This evidence completes the picture that was anticipated when beginning to look at Parkinson's and a possible functional opposite. Normal movement does not suffice to serve as an opposite of Parkinson's; the severe tics accompanying Tourette's Syndrome, however, do. The evidence form drug studies and binding research serves to elucidate the connection. Internet Sources: http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/17/9/3168 http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-o01.html#Head_1 Parkinson's Disease and Tourette's Syndrome Essay -- Biology Essays Re Parkinson's Disease and Tourette's Syndrome Parkinson's Disease is a literally crippling neurodegenerative disorder, manifested in about 1% of the aged population. People who have Parkinson's Disease gradually lose control of their movements; specific symptoms include, "tremor, slowness of movement, stiffness, difficulty in walking, and loss of balance." (1) Evidence strongly suggests that Parkinson's Disease is the result of severe cell loss in the substantia nigra. This brain structure is principally involved in the production of dopamine. (2) Dopamine, among other functions, is the neurotransmitter involved in initiation of movement. Hence, the link between dopaminergic cell loss and cessation of voluntary movement, as manifested in Parkinson's Disease, seems established. (3) However, the applicability of this link seems to not end with Parkinson's Disease. If a severe deficit in dopamine induces cessation of movement and baseline levels of dopamine make voluntary, normal movement possible, can an excess of dopamine, or inc reased effectiveness of dopamine, lead to involuntary manifestation of movement? Potentially, a marked excess, or increase in effectiveness, of dopamine will lead to a loss of control of movement, just as a shortage of dopamine will. However, in the former case, movement should be involuntarily manifested. If such manifestations indeed were observed, it would be interesting to see if, in fact, dopamine excess, or dopamine at all, plays a role. Indeed, involuntary movements, commonly referred to as tics, are the primary symptoms of a disease called Tourette's Syndrome. The syndrome, named after the person who first described it, Gilles de la Tourette, "is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characteri... ...8,9,10) It is noteworthy, that these drugs, when used at excessive dosages, may lead to side effects such as muscular rigidity, tremor, slow movement, and other symptoms, which are very similar to the symptoms accompanying Parkinson's. Also, these side effects can be counteracted by administration of l-Dopa, a drug commonly given to overcome severe 'freezing' in Parkinson's patients. This evidence completes the picture that was anticipated when beginning to look at Parkinson's and a possible functional opposite. Normal movement does not suffice to serve as an opposite of Parkinson's; the severe tics accompanying Tourette's Syndrome, however, do. The evidence form drug studies and binding research serves to elucidate the connection. Internet Sources: http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/17/9/3168 http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-o01.html#Head_1

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Price of Perfection in Brave New World :: Brave New World Essays

The Price of Perfection in Brave New World Aldous Huxley's Brave New World presents a portrait of a society which is superficially a perfect world. At first inspection, it seems perfect in many ways: it is carefree, problem free and depression free. All aspects of the population are controlled: number, social class, and intellectual ability are all carefully regulated. Even history is controlled and rewritten to meet the needs of the party. Stability must be maintained at all costs. In the new world which Huxley creates, if there is even a hint of anger, the wonder drug Soma is prescribed to remedy the problem. A colleague, noticing your depression, would chime in with the chant, "one cubic centimetre of soma cures ten gloomy." This slogan is taught to everyone, from the youngest to the oldest. Unhappiness, intellectual curiosity, disagreement, suffering - none of these feelings is allowed in the world which Huxley creates. At the first sign of unhappiness, Soma is prescribed. Emotions of all types are strictly controlled to provide stability and predictability within the population. Another of the panaceas for social ills is the belief that everyone would enjoy his or her work because he or she was "made" or trained for it when young. Consequently, from birth, everyone in Brave New World is slotted to belong to a specific social and intellectual strata. In conjunction with this idea, all births are completely planned and monitored. There are different classes of people with different intelligence and different "career plans." The social order was divided into the most highly educated, the Alpha+, and then in descending intelligence, the following divisions: Alpha, Beta, Beta -, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon, which is the last group comprised of those citizens of the lowest intelligence who are necessary to perform society's most menial jobs. Another of the problems with the society which Huxley depicts is that the people do not have individuality. They are all conditioned by subliminal messages and artificial stimuli to respond the same way. Although all people are meant to respond identically without thinking, a few are made 'imperfectly' and, as a result, do have personalities. These people violate the principles of technology and artificial personalities and consequently have to be sent away so as not to "contaminate" others. To maintain order in Brave New World, the Resident Controller must have complete authority over more than just the present; he must also have influence over the past. In order to be able to achieve this, he must be able to rewrite history. This gives rise to one of the

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Preparing for and Having a Baby :: Pregnancy Childbearing Essays

Preparing for and Having a Baby There are many different areas to consider when preparing for and having a newborn. Whether the pregnancy was planned or unplanned or the couple is married or not, a newborn baby brings new responsibilities. Having a baby also forces people to make adjustments both financially and within the family. Parents also express concerns and expectations when having a newborn comma especially when it is their first; including what roles each parent and family member should play, how much confidence they have in their parenting skills, and how much financial strain would be placed on the family once the newborn has arrived. The newest issue in today’s society is the fact that many women are delaying childbirth and having more children in their later years of life. This paper will examine three of the areas associated with planning a newborn child, including single parenting, concerns and expectations parents have when planning for and having a child, and financial issues that mothers face when planning a pregnancy. (Specify if you are talking about single moms or parents/couples, if talking about all of them you might want to consider narrowing your research.) (Introduce this quote, where did you find it, how did you find the site, remember that this is a narrative, you are walking me through the steps of your research. ) â€Å"Today, about one in every three U.S. births occurs outside of marriage. The proportion of births to unmarried women has risen monotonically over time, and attitudes toward non - marital fertility have become progressively more tolerant† (Musick, 2002, p. 915). Sometimes these births are planned and at other times they are not. â€Å"Dramatic increases in cohabitation and associated delays in marriage have changed the composition and character of non-marital births. Unmarried mothers now tend to be older, to have other children, and to be living with a partner at the time of their child’s birth† (Musick, 2002, p. 915). What significance does this have to your research? What does it prove? Why did you include it? The article that I researched regarding this area explores the reasons why women may be taking the steps to start a family without marriage, whether these pregnancies are planned or unplanned. The study was conducted using a couple of different methods including the National Survey of Family Growth and a Discrete-Time Hazard Model. â€Å"The National Survey of Family Growth is a periodic, nationally representative fertility survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Betraying Trust or Providing Good Care? Essay

As healthcare professionals, we must know that if confidentiality is breached, patients may be reluctant to disclose full information to any healthcare professional or even avoid seeking care. (Nathanson, 2000) â€Å"The deontological theory states that people should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethical dilemma. (Rainbow, 2002) Therefore, a person who follows the deontology theory will produce very consistent decisions since they will be based on their set duties. Following the deontology theory, as healthcare providers, it is our obligation and duty to respect our patients enough to respect their right to confidentiality. Breaches of confidentiality breaks that level of trust and respect that healthcare professionals work so hard to gain, that after that is broken, and it’s extremely difficulty to rebuild that trust and respect. It is true that there are times as healthcare professionals that we are obligated by law to break confidentiality. In the story of the ER episode, Carol Hathaway has an obligation to notify the public health department of this situation, this is to protect the health of the community. (Nathanson, 2000) There are several consequences in the activities that these teen girls are participating in. If they continue to participate in these â€Å"sex parties† they put everyone involved at risk for HVP, cancer, and ultimately death if left untreated. If it is made aware to the school that these â€Å"sex parties† are happening, schools, healthcare professionals, and parents can get involved with educating these teens about these consequences. As stated in the article written by Nathanson, it does not have to be told where this information came from, and Carol could have been calling as a concerned citizen and doesn’t have to divulge her information as a health care provider. This is a great example of using the six step Uustal model. When applying this model in this situation, start with step 1: Identify the problem and gather all relevant information. In this ER episode two 14 year old girls are present, but they reveal to Carol about â€Å"sex parties† with multiple partners, which could involve several teenagers. Step 2: identify the type of ethical problems. As stated in step one it is extremely concerning to Carol that there are multiple partners and Carol has an emotional dilemma that there may be many other teens affected by some sort of sexually transmitted disease, whether it be the human papillomavirus or something else, all of the teens involved should be tested and treated. Step 3: use ethics theories or approaches to analyze the problem. As stated above, Carol may be guided by the deontology theory which states that people (such as nurses) should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethical dilemma. Rainbow, 2002) Not only is it her duty to treat Andrea, but it is also her duty to ensure safety to the other teens that are possibly involved. Step 4 states explore the practical alternatives. Carol has made the decision on what she believes is the best thing to do for the group of teens. Carol must do this wisely though as to not break her confidentiality agreement to her patient. As stated above, when Carol dec ides to call the school, she should not reveal her identity or where she got the information from. She should call as a concerned citizen that has obtained this information and stated that maybe some education to these teens is necessary. Step 5 is to complete the action. Carol knows what she believes is right, now she must follow through and make the phone call. If Carol fails to act, these â€Å"sex parties† could continue to happen and there could be more and more serious cases of STD’s come into the ER, or worse, a teenager could never get checked until they have full-blown cancer and it could be too late to save them. Step 6 is to evaluate the process and outcome. Carol must now evaluate the situation and her actions and how they may directly affect her patient, Andrea. This is important in the way that she could negatively affect the nurse-patient relationship, depending on what decision she makes and how it is approached. (Purtilo, 2011) Carol could have presented the situation to the ethics committee. The ethics committee could have given insight to what the best thing to do in this situation was and what the best outcome would be. The ethics committee could have informed her that notifying the school would be breaking the patients’ rights, because they are not required to know. They could help Carol with understanding what would be the best way to approach the situation and how they could help Andrea be the one to tell her parents and go from there. This is a very difficult situation for a nurse to be in. She has many responsibilities and obligations and finding the right way to deal with the situation may be a challenge, but as a nurse she knows that she has to do what is best for everyone involved. Sometimes getting through to the patient is extremely difficult, but knowing the right

Monday, September 16, 2019

The Welcome Table by Alice Walker

I choose to analyze The Welcome Table by Alice Walker; this story is about an old, rundown black woman who staggers the necessary distance in the freezing cold to attend an all-white people church. The Welcome Table is told in the third person and shifts the point of view from which the story is told. The white people are at a loss when they see her near the entrance of the church and do not know what to do. Some people take her in as she is, an old black woman with a mildewed dress that is missing buttons. She is lean and wrinkled with blue-brown eyes. Her appearance makes some of the white people think of black workers, maids, cooks; others think of black mistresses or jungle orgies. Still others think that she is a foreshadow of what is to come – black people invading the one place that it still considered the white person's sanctuary, their church. They see her and transfer their fear of blacks onto her. The beginning of the story is told from the white people's perspectives as they see an old black woman come to their church and go inside. Inside the church, the point of view switches to the usher who tells the old black lady to leave. The point of view then switches back to the white women inside the church, who take it as a personal insult and feel the most threatened about the old black lady being at their church. They rouse their husbands to throw the old lady out. The perspective then changes to the old black lady. This constant changing of point of view is useful in that it portrays the fears, thoughts, and feelings of almost everyone in the story. Firsthand, the reader is able to know what the people are thinking and why. In the end, the point of view briefly returns to the white people who were at church that day. The story ends with the perspective of some black families who witnessed the old lady walking down the highway. The story starts on a Sunday morning at the steps of the church that white people attend. The focus moves briefly inside the church where it is cold. As the story progresses the setting moves to the highway located outside the church. It is freezing outside. It is interesting to note that the old black woman does not find Jesus inside the â€Å"white† church but outside of it. Also of interest; prior to meeting Jesus, the old black woman is cold and shivering. After meeting Jesus, no mention is made of the woman's being cold or shivering. Walker does not give a specific time period in which the story takes place or a specific location. This might have been done to make the story timeless. The language used in The Welcome Table is very descriptive in her details of the old black woman's appearance and the appearance of Jesus. Walker is also detailed when describing the white people's different emotions, thoughts, and feelings. Walker provides insight into all the characters with her word choices, and by doing so, makes a simple story more profound. Walker writes this story straight through for the most part with only two breaks. The first break comes immediately after the old woman is thrown out of the church. The point of view then shifts to the old black woman whose thoughts and feelings were unknown to the reader up to this point. The second break occurs after the old woman is walking with Jesus. Walker uses the break to shift forward in time in the white people's perspective. Although the old woman dies at the end of the story and an argument could be made that she was walking alone, this story contains hope and leaves the reader with a good feeling. The story gives hope that people who have lived a life of servitude and poor treatment will, in the end, find kindness, acceptance, and joy.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Main Issues In Combined Freight Transportation Engineering Essay

The chief issues in combined freight transit can be classified into six chief classs as shown in Figure 1. These classs include histrions and cardinal participants, operations, ordinances and policies, substructure, Information and Communication Technology, and environmental issues. Figure: Main classs of combined conveyance Actors and cardinal participants could be categorized by the type of operator and the operational jobs. The assorted undertakings along the transit concatenation are largely executed by four operators that could be distinguished in drayage, terminus, web, and intermodal operator ( Moccia et al. , 2008 ) . The undermentioned subdivisions give some farther information about each of them.Drayage OperatorDrayage operators are responsible for transporting the cargo between shippers and consignees severally and within the terminus ( Puettmann and Stadtler, 2010 ; Macharis and Bontekoning, 2004 ; Caris et al. , 2008 ) . Normally they are send oning companies that receive petitions for conveyance and make all the necessary agreements to transport the burden from its beginning to its finish. Rail terminuss, port installations and shipper/third party installations comprise the drayage location. In each drayage location there are many independent drayage operators who compete with one another to supply drayage services utilizing their ain assets ( i.e. forces, tractors, dawdlers, human body and containers, whether borrowed, owned or rented ) or frequently sub-contracting with many independent owner-operators ( Nadan, 2003 ) . The bulk of drayage operators are close ports. At the port there is a high volume of containers ‘ reachings. When a container arrives at the port, the latter can be delivered to its finish by train or truck. Some of those containers are transported by rail to nearby rail paces for long-haul bringing by train. But the bulk of the containers is hauled by short-haul truck, called drayage, and is less than 100 kilometres ( Robert and Poole, 2007 ) . A drayage operator picks up an empty dawdler or container either at an empty terminal, at a terminus or at a consignee. Then the operator provides it to the shipper and the subsequent transit of a full dawdler or container to the terminus. Delivery operation involves the distribution of a full container or dawdler from the terminus to a consignee. Then it collects the empty container or dawdler and transports it to the terminus, an empty terminal, or the shipper. Trucks are able to divide the tractor and dawdler which allows two processs. In the â€Å" stay-with † process the tractor and the driver stay with the container/trailer during the loading/unloading. In the â€Å" drop-and-pick † process a full or empty trailer/container is dropped off the shipper/receiver. During loading/unloading continuance the tractor and driver are free to transport out other activities. Each drayage company faces jobs such as trip programming between shipper, terminuss and receiving system ( Wang and Regan, 2002 ; Imai et al. , 2007 ) . This job could be enlarged from the terminus demands, client ‘s pick-up and bringing times, realistic bounds on the length of the on the job twenty-four hours, and on-road travel times. The bulk of the cargos normally are known in progress. Nevertheless, sometimes tonss have to be reassigned due to traffic or some terminuss ‘ holds. But the general job of drayage operations is its cost effectivity. In malice of the comparatively short distance alternatively of long-haul rail or flatboat, drayage histories for 25-40 % ( Macharis and Bontekoning, 2004 ) of transit concatenation disbursals. As a effect it affects a batch the profitableness of the whole transit service. For work outing this job a drayage operator should make up one's mind to collaborate with other drayage companies without impacting though the seasonableness of operations.Terminal OperatorTerminal operator manages the modal displacement which take topographic points at the terminus and is responsible for the transshipment operations from flatboat to thrust ahead, route to inveigh or thrust ahead, or rail to inveigh ( Puettmann and Stadtler, 2010 ; Macharis and Bontekoning, 2004 ; Caris et al. , 2008 ) . Normally a terminal consists of a route, rail, and flatboat gate where trucks, trains, or flatboats severally enter and leave the terminus. There is a storage country for hive awaying the tonss for more than a twenty-four hours and the buffer country ( cross-docking ) , which is for short continuance storage. There is besides storage and conveyance equipment and lifting equipment for lading or droping the trains, trucks, and flatboats. Different operations have to be carried out for different types of burden units i.e. containers, swap-bodies, dawdlers or complete trucks. It is besides of import to advert that the operations are non the same for every manner of conveyance. In add-on, the equipment which is used has to be suited and cater to the demands of the burden units. Terminals can use different transshipments techniques, layouts, dimensions, operational schemes etc. An optimum operation terminus is the basic end for the terminus operator. That depends on the demand volume and the type of the exchange i.e. road-barge, road-rail, or rarely rail-rail or barge-barge or rail-barge. Exchange increases the entire conveyance cost and the lead clip in concatenation. Consequently, exchange operations need to be efficient and fast. Terminal operators have to do strategic, tactical, or operational determinations to run into the demands. At strategic degree terminus operator takes attention of the design of the terminus ( Ferreira and Sigut, 1995 ; Meyer, 1998 ; Rizzoli et al. , 2002 ; Ballis and Golias, 2004 ; Bontekoning, 2006 ; Vis, 2006 ; Rijsenbrij and Wieschemann, 2011 ) . At the tactical degree terminus operators take determinations about the needed capacity degrees of equipment and labor ( Kemper and Fischer, 2000 ; Kozan, 2000 ; Kulick and Sawyer, 2001 ; Huynh 2005 ) and the redesign of the operational modus operandis and layout constructions ( Voges et al. , 1994 ; MartA ±nez et al. , 2004 ) . Finally terminus operator has to make up one's mind at operational degree for resource allotment ( John Hargreaves, 1990 ) and scheduling of occupations ( Alicke, 200 2 ; Corry and Kozan, 2006 ; Gambardella et al. , 2001 ) .Network OperatorNetwork operator takes attention of the substructure planning ( strategic degree ) and long-haul transit ( Puettmann and Stadtler, 2010 ) . He is responsible for the organisation of rail or flatboat conveyance ( Macharis and Bontekoning, 2004 ; Caris et al. , 2008 ) . At tactical degree has to take determinations about agendas of service and pricing services and about day-to-day operations of the services at operational degree. Infrastructure determinations trade with the interconnectivity of the manners in order to accomplish combined conveyance ironss ( Crainic et al. , 1990 ; Loureiro, 1994 ; Southworth and Peterson, 2000 ; Klodzinski and Al-Deek, 2004 ; Tan et al. , 2004 ; Groothedde et al. , 2005 ; Parola and Sciomachen, 2005 ) and besides the location of terminuss ( Meinert et al. , 1998 ; Rutten, 1998 ; Arnold and Thomas, 1999 ; Groothedde and Tavasszy, 1999 ; Macharis and Verbeke, 1999 ; Van Duin and Van Ham, 2001 ; Arnold et al. , 2004 ; Macharis, 2004 ; Racunica and Wynter, 2005 ; Kapros et al. , 2005 ; Limbourg and Jourquin, 2008 ; Soerensen et al. , 2011 ) . In some states authorities normally take these determinations and considers for the impact of a capacity addition and the effects of price/cost additions or lessenings on the usage of the different substructure webs. On the other manus, private sector hunts for the optimum location of terminuss and the authorities supports the most interesti ng investings. At tactical degree a web operator, foremost, has to find what sort of services itwill offer. Ithas to alter the attack of long draw conveyance services from travel on demand to a fix service agenda which has to be planned several months or a twelvemonth in progress. For accomplishing this end the operator has to make up one's mind what consolidation web to utilize i.e. a point-to-point web, a line web, a hub-and-spoke web and a trunk-collection-and-distribution web ( Janic et al. , 1999 ; Newman and Yano, 2000a ; Newman and Yano, 2000b ) . A 2nd tactical determination for a web operator is the type of production theoretical account, that is, how to run the trains and the flatboats. This involves determinations about the frequence of service, train length, capacity planning of equipment and allotment of equipment to paths ( Nozick and Morlok, 1997 ; Choong et al. , 2002 ; Lin and Chen, 2004 ; Li and Tayur, 2005 ) . In add-on, pricing scheme determinations has to be considered at this degree. Pricing a combined conveyance merchandise is a truly complicated issue. It requires an accurate cost computation and penetration in the market state of affairs as many histrions are related to the assorted parts of the combined conveyance concatenation ( Tsai et al. , 1994 ; Yan et al. , 1995 ; Li and Tayur, 2005 ) . Finally, at the operational degree, web operator has to take daily direction determinations. Mostly it has to pull off the fleet as the burden order of the flatboats and trains ( Feo and Gonzalez-Velarde, 1995 ; Powell and Carvalho, 1998 ) , redistribution of railway cars or push flatboats ( Chih and new wave Dyke, 1987 ; Chih et al. , 1990 ) , and the burden units. A typical job in combined road/rail conveyance is the assignment of a set of dawdlers and containers to the available flatbeds that can travel this equipment. This job is rather complex as there are different types of flatbeds, and many types of dawdlers and containers.Intermodal OperatorIntermodal operators are users of the intermodal substructure and services, and carry on the optimum path choice of cargos through the whole intermodal web ( Puettmann and Stadtler, 2010 ; Macharis and Bontekoning, 2004 ; Caris et al. , 2008 ) . Intermodal operators organize the transit of cargos on behalf of shippers. Intermodal operators buy the services offered by drayage, web, and terminal operators. At the operational degree they choose paths and services in bing intermodal webs ( Min, 1991 ; Barnhart and Ratliff, 1993 ; Boardman et al. , 1997 ; Ziliaskopoulos and Wardell, 2000 ; Erera et al. , 2005 ) . Taking such a determination is more complex than routing jobs of route draw. In route draw least dearly-won or less clip devouring path is more preferred. But in combined conveyance there is a big assortment of combinations of transit manners. So a average pick job has to take into history specific cargo volumes and specific clip restraints.Regulations & A ; PoliciesThe current policy of the European Commission requires that conveyance systems should be able to turn without serious negative impact on the environment, every bit good as on economic and societal costs. However, the sustainability of the European conveyance system faces some barriers such as: mutual exclusiveness of substructure, turning CO2 emanations from conveyance, dependance on fossil fuels, altering forms in mobility, low safety, lifting congestions, and charges and monetary values deformations ( REFERENCE ) .Incompatible substructureEurope consists of many states and as a consequence, the bulk of the bing substructure has been designed to function national instead than European economic system. This state of affairs created deficiency of comprehensive criterions on substructure design, traffic direction, power supplies and informations exchange. Since now more than 400 billion euros have been spent for developing Trans-European conveyance webs ( TEN-T ) ( REFERENCE ) . But still there are chief deficits in substructure as transalpine tunnels, rail corridors, intermodal nodes for rail and sea or air conveyance, and IT substructure to back up intermodal conveyance. Poor Trans-Europe substructure in combination with deficiency of i nternational cooperation consequences to the undermentioned inefficiencies ( Impact Assessment, 2010 ) : Lack of joint traffic prognosiss taking to differing investing programs ; Disconnected or even contradictory timelines ; Lack of joint investings computation and joint fiscal constructions ; Incompatible proficient features ; Inadequate joint direction of cross-border substructure undertakings. For sustainable substructure programs there are some actions to be taken. The list below shows some of them. Joined investings programs Coordinated land planning Further development of TEN-T web Open criterions for information exchange systems Open criterions for design of substructureTurning Greenhouse Gas emanationsTransport sector has greatly increased its activity for the last twosome decennaries now. The growing rate of GHG emanations in conveyance is higher than any other sector comparing to 1990. Harmonizing to the information of European Environment Agency in twelvemonth 2010, conveyance is accounted for 19.7 % of entire GHG emanations in EU-27, as it is shown in Figure 2.This growing of conveyance activities concerns for its environmental sustainability. The energy efficiency is increasing but the gait of betterments is non sufficient to make sustainable conveyance in Europe. Figure: GHG emanations by sector ( Source: EU statistical pocketbook 2012 ) The EU White Paper on Transport, ( 2011 ) refers that European committee has set specific ends. The first end of new conveyance policy is to maintain the conveyance turning and support mobility while accomplishing the end of 60 % GHG emanations decrease by 2050 comparing to 1990 degree. In order to accomplish this end the European Commission has defined ten ends for a competitory and resource efficient conveyance system which benchmarks for accomplishing the 60 % GHG emanation decrease mark ( see extensively in White Paper, 2011, pp. 9-11 ) . In general, actions that should be taken towards the rejuvenation of cargo conveyance are as follows: bing engineerings have to be replaced by green engineerings ; use of electric autos is preferred, phasing out â€Å" conventionally-fueled † vehicles from urban countries ; decrease of C in maritime and air power conveyance.Dependence on fossil fuelsConveyance is still 97 % dependant on fossil fuels ( REFERENCE ) . Since now Transport has non reduced significantly its GHG strength by exchanging to cleaner energy beginnings. European Union has adopted a adhering mark of a 10 % portion of renewable energy beginnings in conveyance by 2020 ( Directive, 2009 ) as portion of the clime alteration and energy bundle. Switching to greener vehicles will necessitate the development of alternate fuelling/charging substructure. Another of import action is concentrating on research in cost-efficient renewable fuels. The new green engineerings for green vehicles are important, so there is a demand for shorter design-to-market rhythms.Low safetyOne of the objects included in the EU White Paper ( 2001 ) , was to halve casualties in route conveyance by 2010. This end has non been achieved although different actions had been taken in many Member States. In air power sector was implemented a set of common, unvarying and compulsory statute law covering all the cardinal safety elements: airdrome care, airdrome direction, operations of air traffic direction systems. The most advanced regulative models for safety and pollution bar was established by EU in maritime sector. Another job is that European conveyance corridors are common for cargo and rider conveyance. This has caused many accidents with a consequence of over 40000 accident human deaths until 2000 ( White Paper, 2001 ) . For cut downing the sum of human deaths, EU has to take some steps i.e. dividing lading and rider corridors. Signing systems has besides to be improved and new vehicles safety systems to be implemented.Rising congestionRoad conveyance is the chief manner for goods motion. Harmonizing to the European Commission the portion of route conveyance is 73 % , somewhat decreased by 3.9 % from 2009 ( Road Freight Transport Vademecum, 2010 ) . At the same clip the portion of rail is merely 17 % with inland waterways and oil grapevines accounting for 5 % each ( Road Freight Transport Vademecum, 2009 ) .The congestion in urban countries and on the cardinal theodolite roads works as a barrier for the current capacity of conveyance webs run intoing the turning demand. The dependability of route conveyance suffers and the clip length of journeys is acquiring longer. Besides some airdromes are really engorged. For work outing this job, European Commission published the 2001 White Paper on European Conveyance Policy. The thought was to cut down that congestion by switching from route onto rail, waterways or short-sea transportation. In add-on, great accent is given on the usage of intermodal conveyance. Furthermore, harmonizing to the EU statistical pocketbook ( 2012 ) , route conveyance is the less environment friendly mode as it causes 71.7 % of entire GHG emanations. For that ground route conveyance has to go greener and more efficient excessively. New vehicle engineerings, better substructure, fuel efficiency and â€Å" eco-driving † are needed. There is a demand of assisting solution for take downing the congestion by intelligent mobility and conveyance demand direction. There is still a deficiency of concerted systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure-communications that might in the longer term better well the efficiency of the traffic direction and relieve congestion ( Golinska and Hajdul, 2012 ) . In order to avoid addition in aviation congestion high-velocity rail should absorb much medium distance traffic. Another action is to increase the denseness of rail webs and make efficient and green cargo corridors. There is besides a demand for development of intermodal hubs and intermodal integrating of conveyance services.Mobility formsThe advancement in traveling traffic from route conveyance to other manners is still really limited. European Commission has tried a batch to convert companies to alter their organisation of logistics procedures and take into history when be aftering the impact of environment and society, but the consequences were negative. Entrepreneurs largely concern about the fiscal consequences and if there is non a strong statement of betterment, they are non interested in utilizing options to route conveyance manners. Therefore, it is deserving to observe that the pick of manners of conveyance straight affects some factors such as monetary value, the susceptibleness of the lading and the features of conveyance manners. Furthermore, sometime is impossible to utilize rail, inland waterway or intermodal conveyance. For work outing the above jobs, there is a demand for incorporate logistics systems which should be monitored enabling the co-modality, standardisation and interoperability across manners. Furthermore, a platform has to be created for linking the airdromes and ports with efficient rail services. Another action is the constitution of the model for European multimodal conveyance information, direction and payment system attractive frequences and comfort. Smart intermodal fining, with common EU criterions is another solution ( Golinska and Hajdul, 2012 ) .Monetary values and revenue enhancements deformationsThe distinction of monetary values for the usage of route in extremum and off-peak hours is really rarely. There is besides deficiency of inducements for use of more soundless vehicles, safer and more environment friendly manners of conveyance. Furthermore the congestion charges, which represent the cost of substructure scarceness, are non frequently imposed. On the other manus, conveyance system generates grosss for public budget including: Energy revenue enhancements ( 1.9 % of GDP ) coming from fuel revenue enhancements on route conveyance and private autos ( Eurostat, 2008 ) ; Vehicle revenue enhancements ( 0.6 % of GDP ) ; Tolls and charges for substructure usage. Although users pay a important sum, the monetary value frequently bears small connexion to the existent costs of conveyance in society. The rule â€Å" defiler wages † is non ever respected. The costs imposed on conveyance users do non reflect disbursals to keep and develop the substructure. Furthermore, the pricing system fails to maneuver the demand for most efficient and sustainable mobility picks. Therefore monetary values and revenue enhancements should be connected with sustainability. Local authoritiess have to self-finance the development and care of substructure giving besides incentives for local companies for use of intermodal conveyance. They besides have to follow purely the rules of â€Å" user wages † and â€Å" defiler wages † and extinguish the harmful subsidies. In add-on there is a demand of a regulative model and advanced fiscal instruments for unlocking the potency of private sector in co-financing substructure ‘s deployment and cares within public-private partnership ( PPP ) undertakings.InfrastructureTransport substructure is a cardinal component for the economic growing and development and it plays a cardinal function to increase the growing and occupations in Europe. An efficient substructure which warrants handiness could pull centres of production and ingestion and therefore impacts positively on the regional economic system. More eff icient substructures enable a better mobility for people and goods every bit good as a better connexion between parts. In add-on, planning, design and building of substructures have remained mostly unchanged over the last century ; therefore attending has to set besides on the research of new building stuffs processes with the purpose to introduce the sector. Research has to be concentrated on processs and stuffs that minimize nursery gas emanations, on design and planning that respect landscape and geographical diverseness whilst lending to decongestion major conveyance corridors, and on techniques that will guarantee longer life and reduces care intercessions.Road substructureEuropean Union has made great attempts to advance multimodality but route conveyance has still a turning tendency. For this ground there is an immediate necessity to increase route capacity and efficiency. Roads must be able to absorb the ongoing and increasing flow of vehicles and guarantee at the same clip an equal degree of safety. Such public presentations must be developed in largest portion on bing webs. Therefore non me rely new building methods, but besides sustainable care of the bing web is paramount. Care of route substructure deserves a particular attending for two chief grounds. First, many accidents ( e.g. rollovers of HV or skidding of vehicles in general ) have caused due to the hapless status of route substructure. Second, care plants hinder and disrupt the bringing ‘s free flow therefore increasing their costs. For avoiding these two scenarios, more effectual and lasting care techniques are needed i.e. safe and efficient night-time operations. Furthermore, there is a demand for more fluid traffic flow to cut down vehicles emanations, as transit sectors accounts the biggest per centum of CO2 emanations ( Laura, V, 2008 ) . Some of the most of import roads are included in the Trans-European route web. It includes more than 65.100 kilometer expresswaies and 5.000.000 kilometers paved roads ( Steer Davies Gleave, 2009 ) , whether bing, new or to be adapted which: Play an of import function in long-distance traffic Bypass the chief urban centres on the routed identified by the web Provide interconnectedness with other manners of conveyance Link landlocked and peripheral parts of the Union Beyond these, this web guarantees users a high, unvarying and uninterrupted degree of services, comfort and safety ( Bergmans, L, 2009 ) .Sea and river portsHarmonizing to ( CIA, 2011 ) in European Union there are 24 oversea ports. The most of import one is the Port of Rotterdam which is the largest one and located in the metropolis of Rotterdam. Such havens can function at their quayside deep-sea vass with a loading capacity of more than 8.000 container units ( TEU ) . Smaller regional ports are linked with the oversea ports by Feeder vass which have capacity up to 1.200 TEU. Inland flatboats are used to transport containers into the backwoods on rivers and channels and they are besides served by Cranes. Ports can be divided into two subdivisions: riders and lading. The latter one normally offers terminal installations. Such terminuss consist of two external interfaces. These interfaces are the quayside with burden and unloading of ships, and the landside where the containers are loaded and unloaded on/off trucks and trains. When a container vas arrives at the port, it is assigned to a position equipped with Cranes to lade and unload containers. At the instance of RoRo vass, trucks with their lading issue from the inclines. Unloaded import containers are transported to yard places near to put where they will be transshipped following. Containers geting by railroad or route are managing within the truck and train operation country ( Steenken et al. , 2004 ) . Seaport terminal.jpg Figure: Container terminus system ( Beginning: Steeken et al. , 2004 ) At every port terminus there is managing equipment such as Cranes, conveyance agencies and helping systems. The quay Cranes for lading and droping ships play a polar function. There are two types of quay Cranes: single-trolley Cranes and dual-trolley Cranes. Crane drivers are supported by a semi-automatic guidance system. These Cranes can function around 50 boxes per hr, while in operation the public presentation is about 25 boxes per hr. A 2nd class of Cranes is applied to tonss. There are either rail mounted gauntry Cranes ( RMG ) which are more stable, or rubber tired gauntries ( RTG ) which are more flexible, and over-head span Cranes which are mounted on concrete or tip pillars. At port terminuss there is besides a assortment of vehicles for the horizontal transit both for the ship-to-shore transit and the landside operation. The first category of vehicles is these which are non able to raise containers i.e. trucks with dawdlers, multi- dawdlers and automatic guided ( AGV ) ( Vis and Harika, 2004, Yang et al. , 2004 ) . Transport vehicles of the 2nd category are those which are able to raise containers i.e. Straddle bearers, forklifts, and range stackers. The first 1 is the most of import because it can besides stack containers in the pace. Last but non least are the helping systems which help for the organisation and optimisation of the work flow. Such systems are communication systems and positioning systems. Terminal operators support a really frequent communicating with external parties like agents, transporting lines, truck and rail companies, forwarders, governmental governments like imposts, waterway constabulary and others. The communicating is based on international criterions ( EDIFACT ) and every alteration of lading position is communicated between the several parties ( Steeken et al. , 2004 ) .Rail substructureHarmonizing to ( Steer Davies Gleave, 2009 ) in TEN-T web there are more than 212.000 kilometer of rail lines, out of which about 110.500 kilometers are electrified and the cargo conveyance trains could make a length up to 750 m. There are besides many road-rail container terminuss which support this web. Such terminuss include: Gates, internal route web, Loading and driving lanes for the trucks, Storage or buffer lanes for IntermodalTransportUnits, Transshipment paths ( besides called as burden paths ) for the train loading/unloading operations, and Rail turnouts for train/wagon storage, marshalling and review The equipment which seems to rule among conventional equipment is reach stackers and rail-borne gauntry Cranes. On little terminuss reach stacker is the major mean for raising, managing, transporting, and stacking ITUs. This is due to the low cost and flexibleness that offers ( Ballis and Golias, 2001 ) . Unlike rider terminuss, rail cargo paces do non hold to be so centrally located because of the great trade of infinite for multiple paths for marshaling. Rail paces, could pull fabricating activities able to utilize distribution capablenesss of rail, and therefore go industrial zones. In add-on, rail cargo terminuss perform four major maps ( Rodrigue et al, 2009 ) : Majority: These rail terminuss are linked with extractive industries such as agribusiness, excavation and wood merchandises. Grain lifts are normally used to hive away, blend, and burden grain into railway cars. Roll on/ Roll off: Vehicles are rolled in a railway car utilizing a incline. This operation requires a big sum of parking vehicles. Intermodal: The map of burden and droping unitized cargo from railway cars demands specific intermodal equipment. Shunting: The map of piecing, screening and breakage of cargo trains. Trains can be composed of up to about 100 railway cars. The major job of cargo conveyance in European Union are the obstructions its faces on cross-border traffic. For case, the most dramatic grounds of such barriers is different path gages, electricity supply and the signaling systems. The deployment of ERTMS, the European signaling system, is come oning easy ; so far, merely discontinued subdivisions of lines are equipped, and engines still need to be to boot equipped with national systems. Furthermore, the length of trains is non harmonized across Europe. Another job is the deficiency of efficient and effectual intermodal terminuss, different service degrees across manners, deficiency of criterions, and losing substructure links, particularly across boundary lines ( Impact Assessment, 2010 ) .Freight VillageIn international bibliography, the term â€Å" nodal centre † or â€Å" freight nodal terminus † is encountered with assorted names: â€Å" Cargo Villages † ( United Kingdom ) , â€Å" Platformes Multimodales/L ogistiques † ( France ) , â€Å" Logistics Park, Interporto † ( Italy ) , â€Å" Gueterverkehrszentren † ( Germany ) ( Tsamboulas and Dimitropoulos, 1999 ) . The first cargo small towns were created in France around 1960 and subsequently appeared besides in Italy and Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, and the United Kingdom ( Kapros et. al. , 2005 ) . A freight small town is the hub of a specific country where all the activities associating to transport, logistics and goods distribution – both for national and international theodolite – are carried out, on a commercial footing, by assorted operators ( Ballis and Mavrotas, 2007, Pal otas, and Bazaras, 2004, Afandizadeh and Moayedfar, 2007 ) . It is noted that â€Å" intermodal † or â€Å" multimodal † terminuss constitute a chief constituent of nodal centres for goods where the transshipment of goods from one manner to the other takes topographic point. However, freight small towns reflect to a modern manner of forming logistics, conveyance and goods distribution activities. Normally provides subsidiary installations such as warehouses, distribution centres, storage countries, offices, truck services, bank, postal, insurance services and in certain instances Customs substructures ( Europlatforms, 2004 ) . In add-on, a cargo small town located in the locality of a big metropolis may supply an efficient solution to urban conveyance jobs including traffic congestion, regional competiveness, and quality of life. The cost of land acquisition and cargo small town buildings every bit good as with distribution systems and operations of storage is high plenty. For this ground, such an investing has to take attention of all related facets that include site location choice, site-level layout planning and warehouse design facets.Warehouse and cross-docking countriesCross-docking services are chiefly used by many companies in different industries ( e.g. retail houses and less-than-truckload ( LTL ) logistics suppliers ) . The thought behind cross-docking is to reassign incoming cargos straight to surpassing vehicles without the procedure of storage between these two operations. The end of this service is to consolidate the cargos, to cut down the bringing lead clip and costs, etc. The function of cross-docking in industry even seems to increase ( Boysen and Fliender, 2010, Apte and Viswanathan, 2000, Saddle Creek Corp. , 2011 ) . Cross-docking can be describes as the procedure of consolidating cargo with the same finish ( but coming from several beginnings ) , with minimum handling and small or no storage between droping and burden of the goods ( Belle et al. , 2012 ) . The focal point on cross-docking services is now on the transshipping, non keeping cost. On the other manus, warehousing includes four major maps: receiving, hive awaying, picking, despatching. Storage and picking are the normally the most dearly-won. Storage is expensive due to the stock list handling costs and picking due to labour intensive. Goods can be stored for several yearss or even hebdomads, alternatively of approximately 24h as many writers say in cross-docking ( Bartholdi and Gue, 2004, Li et al. , 2004, Vahdani and Zandieh, 2010, Wen et al. , 2009 ) . But many organisations use a mixture of warehousing and cross-docking to unite the benefits of both attacks. A terminus which its chief installations are for cross-docking is called cross-dock. Most cross-docks are long, narrow rectangles ( I-shape ) , but other forms are besides used ( L, T, X, aˆÂ ¦ ) ( Bartholdi and Gue, 2004 ) . There is no particular substructure to present cargo, a ‘strip door ‘ where the cargo is unloaded, and a ‘stack door ‘ where the cargo is loaded on the outbound trucks. The advantages of a cross-dock ( Belle et al. , 2012 ) are the undermentioned: Cost decrease ( warehousing costs, stock list costs, managing costs, labour costs, transit costs ) ; Shorter bringing lead clip ( from provider to consignee ) ; Improved client service ; Faster stock list turnover ; Decrease of storage infinite ; Fewer overstocks ; Reduced hazard for loss and harm ; Consolidation cargos ; Improved resource use ( e.g. full truckloads ) ; Better lucifer between shipment measures and existent demand. The advantages make cross-docking an interesting logistic scheme that can give companies considerable competitory advantages.EnvironmentTransport contributes significantly to general economic development. However, conveyance has negative influences on wellness and the environment, notably through air pollution, route traffic hurts, traffic noise, psychological and societal impacts, land usage and possibilities for physical activity ( WHO, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to ( UNECE/WHO Europe, 2004 ) , policy has besides focused on the function of conveyance on clime alteration.Air pollutionThe conveyance sector contributes about 25 per cent of the air pollution burden, most of it from vehicles. Air pollution is responsible for many symptoms and diseases. It leads to increased mortality ( premature deceases ) , increased admittances to hospital for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, increased frequence of respiratory symptoms and usage of medicine by people with asthma, and reduced lung ma p ( WHO Europe, 1995 ) . It besides reduces life anticipation. Ozone ( O3 ) , airborne particulate affair ( PM ) and lead ( Pb ) are the transport-related pollutants that pose most concerns, but sulfur dioxide ( SO2 ) , nitrogen dioxide ( NO2 ) , C monoxide ( CO ) , lead scavengers and assorted carcinogens are besides noteworthy. In EU states life anticipation is estimated that it is shortened by 8.6 months by air pollution ( UNECE/WHO Europe, 2009 ) and at 2000 about 350,000 lives lost due to exposure to air pollution ( WHO Europe, 2005 ) . WHO has set an air-quality guideline degree at 20 I?g/m3. However, harmonizing to ( ENHIS, 2007 ) exposure degrees to PM10 ( Particulate affairs with diameter less than 10 I?g ) varied from 13 to 14 I?g/m3 ( Finland, Ireland ) to 53 to 56 I?g/m3 ( Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia ) . The study of ( ENHIS, 2007 ) besides summarized that 89 % of people in European part are exposed to more than the WHO ‘s bound and around 14 % of population exceeds the EU bound value of 40 I?g/m3.NoiseWHO guidelines limit noise degrees for residential countries to 55 dubnium ( A ) during the twenty-four hours and to 45 dubnium ( A ) during the dark ( WHO, 1999 ) . Conveyance is the most of import beginning of community noise across Europe. Approximately 30 % of the EU-15 population is exposed to degrees of route traffic noise of more than 55 dubnium ( A ) . In general, the WHO guidelines for noise are frequently exceeded in South East Europe on route with high traffic tonss ( UNECE/WHO Europe, 2009 ) . But noise is emanating non merely from the motion of conveyance vehicles but besides from the operations of ports, airdrome and rail paces. Break of communicating, damage of hearing, and bad sleep quality can be effects of noise. Continuous noise above 30 dubnium ( A ) and indoor noise above of 45dB ( A ) can impact sleep quality, cause weariness and reduced public presentation. Prolonged or inordinate exposure to resound ( e.g. 65-70 dubnium ( A ) ) can do lasting medical conditions such as high blood pressure ( Berglund et al. , 1999 ) . European Commission aims are to guarantee a high degree of wellness and environmental protection and at the same time to safeguard internal market for motor vehicles. To accomplish this Commission ‘s proposal foresees a entire decrease of 4 dubnium ( A ) for light vehicles and 3 dubnium ( A ) for heavy vehicles ( European Commission, 2011 ) . This measure will be introduced from 1 January 2015.Energy usageMotorized conveyance depends on fossil fuels, e.g. oil merchandises, which account for more than 98 % of the conveyance sector ‘s energy ingestion. Alternatively of fossil fuels, there are besides other prevailing options, such as biogas, H, electricity, and intercrossed vehicles. However, there is besides a strong trust on fossil fuels. As a consequence, GHG emanations from conveyance are closely tied to transport demand ( BRRT, 2007c, Woodcock et al. , 2007 ) . Since the terminal of 1990s, energy ingestion has been increasing across Europe. Coal is more competitory than the high gas monetary values. This tendency may go on if no extra policies and steps are implemented ( BRRT, 2007d ) . The ratio of addition from 1990-2000 is 2 % which is equal to 365 Mtoe ( million dozenss oil equivalent ) in 2000 ( some 35 % of all energy usage ) . As a effect, the more energy is consumed the more CO2 emanations from conveyance are produced. In add-on, energy ingestion per capita for conveyance is 2 or 4 times higher in Western Europe than in the other European parts ( UNECE/WHO Europe, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to International Energy Agency, conveyance sector consumed 42 % of the oil in 1973 and this portion climbed to 61.5 % in 2010. But in recent old ages oil monetary values have increased and this crated the demand to utilize more energy efficient manners. The two most energy efficient manners for freight transit are rail and maritime conveyance. Inland waterways besides provide an energy efficient method for transporting ladings. For illustration, a tow boat traveling a typical burden of 15 flatboats is tantamount to 225 railway cars or 870 truckloads ( Rodrigue et al, 2009 ) . Furthermore, oil militias are shriveling, costs of crude oil are increasing and the demand to cut down emanations of harmful pollutants is now more imperative. For this ground, the solution of alternate fuels in the signifier of non-crude oil resources is needed. The most prevailing options being consider are: Biogas such as ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and biodiesel can be produced from the agitation of nutrient harvests ( sugar cane, maize, cereals, etc. ) or wood-waste. Hydrogen which is produced by electrolysis of H2O or by pull outing it from hydrocarbon Electricity which is stored in a pure battery Hybrid vehicles dwelling of propulsion system utilizing an internal burning engine supplemented by an electric motor and batteries, which provides chances uniting the efficiency of electricity with the long drive scope of an internal burning engine. Monetary value of oil will surely go on to increase, as there are serious restrictions of non-fossil fuels in the transit sector.Climate alterationClimate alteration is already impacting human wellness, by doing new hazards and force per unit areas such as nutrient deficits and hungriness, change of H2O resources and harm to physical substructure ( peculiarly by low-lying rise and utmost conditions events such as inundations, heat moving ridges etc. ) . Harmonizing to UNECE C dioxide ( CO2 ) is non a pollutant but a nursery gas which contributes chiefly to planetary heating effects holding a prevailing portion of 55 % . ( OECD/ITF, 2008 ) and which is associated to climate alteration. As it is shown in Figure 12 conveyance sector ‘s portion of GHG emanations is about 30 % . Conventional engines besides produce other emanations such as methane ( CH4 ) , azotic oxide ( N2O ) , and ozone ( O3 ) which are besides responsible for the nursery phenomenon.