Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Project Management-Chapter 8 Review Questions Paper How does resource scheduling tie to project priority? -resource scheduling is directly tied to the project priority, because of the amount of available resources. The resources available will automatically go towards the project with the highest priority assigned by the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. 2. How does resource scheduling reduce flexibility in managing projects? -Resource scheduling will reduce the flexibility because the scheduling system will reduce slack in increasing the number of critical and near-critical activities. . Present six reasons scheduling resources is an important task. oIt allows the project manager check to see if the resource is adequate and to assess the availability of resource. oIt allows the PM to consider possible alternatives for limited resources oIt allows multiple projects to be worked on at the same time, even if they are utilizing some or all of the same resources needed. oIt allows PMÃ¢â¬â¢s to see how much flexibility they have with man aging certain resources. Will help see if the project is assigned a realistic time line oIt will allow the PM to see which resources have priority 4. How can outsourcing project work alleviate the three most common problems associated with multiproject resource scheduling? -Outsourcing is a great way to improve the utilization of limited resources and make sure the project is running smoothly and efficiently and reduce bottlenecks. 5. Explain the risks associated with leveling resources, compressing or crashing projects, and imposed durations or Ã¢â¬Å"catch-upÃ¢â¬ as the project is being implemented. The risks associated with leveling resources, compressing or crashing projects, and imposed durations are if flexibility is decreased and the risk of project delay is increased. 6. Why is it critical to develop a time- phased baseline? -It is important to develop a time-phased budget because they are critical to having a reliable project schedule. Other systems wonÃ¢â¬â¢t allow the PM to measure the amount of work completed or manage resources as well. We will write a custom essay sample on Project Management-Chapter 8 Review Questions specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Project Management-Chapter 8 Review Questions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Project Management-Chapter 8 Review Questions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer
Sunday, November 24, 2019
A Patient essays A patient, lethally ill or in very bad pain, does not have the right to commit suicide or die by help of a physician. This, of course, is my opinion and I believe that you should always try to keep them alive as long as possible. If you are suffering and are lethally ill, then that is the way that God has it planned out for you. I dont think that anyone has the right to take his or her own life or take the life of someone else. In this country, taking the life of someone else is a major felony and could result in the death penalty. On the other hand, committing suicide or attempting to commit suicide isnt a crime by any means. In an unusual way, this could contradict itself. Can you really put ownership on life? Do we control our own destiny? Why is it that attempting to commit suicide is completely fine but someone depriving someone else of life will most likely result in the rest of his or her life in a cell? We are losing a life either way so what difference does it make? Ask yourself this is it really our life to take in the first place? Do we own it? Everyone has heard about the mass suicide cults that used to thrive in the 70s and 80s. Was the leader of the cult a criminal? If so, why? He didnt kill any of them; they ended their own lives. He may have mislead them and lied to There is only one state in the entire United States where it is legal for a physician to give a patient lethal medicine if they have a deadly disease and are in severe pain. That state is Oregon. This is only done under very tight conditions. This issue is not specifically mentioned in the laws of Utah, North Carolina, and Wyoming. Conversely, it is a criminal act in every other state. Physician assisted suicide or PAS is a big issue in the medicine world these days. ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Which ethical theory provides the most convincing guide to the ethical conduct of business - Essay Example The fundamental reason for this is the emergence of the ethical consumer. This is a special breed of the common person which finds solace in the fact that his/her buying decisions are responsible decisions. This type of consumer will make purchase decisions influenced to some extent by knowing the operations of the company from which certain products are being bought. Understandably, being ethical is likely to have as many meanings as there are consumers but in a broad sense, the consumer could be very hesitant in buying goods or services from a company which does not ensure that its products or operations do not harm or exploit labour, animals or cause extensive pollution to the world around us (Ethical Consumer, 2006). Such decisions are very easy to make for the majority of people living in the UK where being an ethical consumer is relatively easy as compared to the situation a few years ago. The ethical consumer depends on information since it is the root of ethical buying decisions (Ethical Consumer, 2006). Information about companies, their actions, deeds and use of money is very easily accessed, shared and distributed on the internet (Adams, 2004). The use of the internet certainly makes the task easier as compared to getting information about companies in the developing world. Therefore, anyone with even a passing interest in a certain company can find out as much as they would like about the company and their various processes. At the very root of business is the image of the company and the way in which it presents itself to consumers (Brown, 2005). The usefulness of ethical egoism is clear when the image that the company wants to present is that of an ethical organisation or even an ethical government (Yeatman, 2004). This is particularly important for organisations dealing in finance who must present an image of honesty and reliability to their consumers. Similarly, a company which produces outdoor camping gear would be
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
IV therapy - Assignment Example These studies have recommended that peripheral I.V cannula should stay in-situ for not longer than 72 hours save for special cases where it can stay for not more than 96 hours (Finlay 48). It should be checked every 8 hours. Isotonic saline maintenance fluid would help for a patient with a low ECF volume especially if it has come with haemodynamic collapse. Where the reduced ECF is accompanied by low plasma sodium concentration, Hypertonic saline is best suited. Anaesthetized patients will usually have reduced blood pressure when there is no ECF volume that is contracted. This is because anesthesia reduces venous tone. Such hypotension would be curbed by using isotonic saline(Weinstein and Ada 61). Electrolyte-free water should be used in cases of patients with high water deficit in their ICF compartment. This ought to be guided by the level of plasma sodium concentration; usually when it exceeds 140mN. It is possible to administer two drugs using one syringe or IV line. Remains of the first drug and the diluent should not change the second drug. When this happens, the two drugs are said to be incompatible. Drug incompatibility check seeks to identify the presence of precipitate or gas that result from the combination of two drugs. If the drug does not remain intact within 24 hours, it could also be an indication of incompatibility. Y-site compatibility check uses a 1:1 mixture of solutions whose concentrations are provided. Admixture compatibility check, on the other hand, combines the test masses of two drugs in various diluents (Finlay 49). Peripheral IV catheters are used widely in administering drugs and parenteral nutrition. They are also used to access venipuncture. It is important to maintain their patency to mitigate the cost of replacement and discomfort. Solutions of varying heparin strengths are used to flush these catheters. Heparin reduces the risk of clots in the lumen thereby maintaining the patency of catheters. Heparin is supposed to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Unearthing the Mystery of the Gifted with Learning Disabilities - Essay Example This essay stresses that children may be given the intervention that is appropriate for his or her learning disability. Learning strategy instruction appears to hold great educational potential because strategy training emphasizes helping students learn how to learn and how to use strategies found to be effective in promoting successful performance of academic, social, or job-related tasks. Students need these skills not only to cope with immediate academic demands but also to address similar tasks in different settings under different conditions throughout life. They are resources for an individual to use, especially when faced with new learning situations. This paper makes a conclusion that the previous and ongoing research on the gifted with learning disabilities have a long way to go in terms of truly helping the students concerned. While intellectual giants are locking horns in identifying those deserving to fall under this criteria, time is running out and the students concerned are left to languish in regular school systems without the appropriate interventions to meet their specific needs. It is more important to focus on helping even those suspected to be G/LD to learn to both nurture their gifts and cope with their weaknesses to survive their condition. It is not to be forgotten that such individuals are not only made up of cognitive functions. Their emotional, psychological and physical well-being likewise needs attention.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Financial liberalisation Financial Liberalisation refers to deregulation of domestic financial market and liberalisation of the capital account that implies removing the ceiling on interest rates. When it is in a liberalised system the competition between the different lending institutions for the deposits will increase interest rates on deposits which will increase the deposits. The availability of credit will increase and this will cause an increase in investment growth. The stages of growth increases activity in the financial markets that makes the introduction and the development of financial institutions. It is argued that financial institutions, by gathering and evaluating information from borrowers, allow the allocation of funds for investment plans to become more efficient and therefore encourage growth and investment. Banks have a role in the process of development. These banks gives the chance for individuals to hold their savings in the form of deposits, so lowing the need to hold them in the form of illiquid unproductive tangible assets, as this increases liquidity in the economy. Banks could use the deposits to invest such as currency and capital etc. While an individuals need for liquidity remains unpredictable, banks, by law of large numbers, face a predictable demand for deposit withdrawals, and this in turn allows banks to invest funds more efficiently. The rate of growth reacts positively to the interest rate but investment reacts negatively to the interest rate. Higher interest rate discourage low return investment, investors will be induced to undertake high return investments, thereby bringing efficiency to investment, which in turn will improve the growth rate to a greater extent than that which is possible under financial repression. Interest rate does not affect of saving indirectly but it is instead a role of income. The relationship linking the availability of credit and investment growth can be about interest rates which play a role more in particular, lenders and borrowers. The theory is they can be sure about the loans being repaid. The problem is that borrowers can not guarantee their repayments. With this in mind uncertainty enters into the equation in to the loan repayment so lender take measures in case borrowers plans are unsuccessful and lenders try not to lose their loan capital. So in order to cover this they use the credit standard in the loan calculation. For borrowers that mean they will have to be able get the credit standard in order to receive a loan. If liberalisation happened and the reason was a rise in interest rate this will increase the deposit and increases in the availability of credit. But a rise in deposit will affect the loan rate by increasing but in relation with the size of the loan cause increase in the repayment rate. So credit standard is set on size of the loan and when interest rate increases it does not cover the banks loan capital. So if banks would want to be covered by the credit standard they like to have zero credit risk. To achieve this they would increase the credit standard to make sure that they zero credit risk. This will mean that borrower would take a large amount or unable to meet the demand they will not be allowed the loan. This means an increase in the availability of credit will not guarantee access to the loan market. When interest rates increases, investors who want to get high returns will be attain less than they paid for and they will lose if they sell. Therefore they do not sell. Investors who invest large amount take advantage of high interest rate; these investors have a high credit risk. So the greater flow of credit makes share prices to increase and they higher profits because of the price increase. Since profit from the acquisition and the sale of shares rises, loan capital will be further attracted to the stock market, so it increases the stock market activity. This introduces the possibility of attracting a substantial portion of the loan capital to move different parts of the economy in favour of financial assets. This evidently raises a concern about the efficiency gain by means of liberalisation. In this process them return on loans will no longer be linked with the yield from shares; rather it will be inter-locked with the return from the expected change in share prices when economic activities are falling. If bad news spread that will decrease share prices. So investors will not make profit from the change in share prices. Therefore investors will find it hard to keep their debt in order. This is where a serious problem arises, and that is, if the actual price falls short of the expected price and so borrowers wont be able to keep their word that they gave to banks. In this problem arises because the banks cannot maintain their credit standard requirements for these borrowers. In other words, banks have advanced loans which exceed the aggregate value of the borrowers assets. Thus the core problem lies with banks needing to take high level of credit risk from large loans because of liberalisation. As said before any bad news that will cause banks a lot of problem and this will lead to a financial crisis. Because of this reason the crisis happens since most of loans had high levels of credit risk. The credit crunch is what economist use it means a shortage of funds for lending, which reduce the availability of loans. The credit crunch can happen for several reasons because of a shape rise in interest rates and the government has direct money controls and also funds decreasing in the capital markets. The latest credit crunch happened because of a sudden increase in defaults on subprime mortgages. The Credit crunch started in United States and eventually spread across the world. The mortgage lenders sold lots of mortgages to customers who have low income and who are first time buyers and have not got a good credit rating these customers are the called subprime borrowers. They thought that house market would boom and mortgages still reasonable but they were lax lending of mortgages to subprime borrowers. The reason they were lax is because mortgage brokers got paid to sell mortgages. These cause for more mortgages to be sold, even though it was expensive and high risk of default. Mortgages companies wanted to make more money on the subprime mortgages and they put the debt into a package and sold it to other companies. This is how it turned globally because of Ã¢â¬Å"package sub-prime home loans into mortgage-backed securities known as CDOs (collateralised debt obligations).Ã¢â¬ [timesonlinea. 24 Feb. 2010]. They sold it to hedge funds and investment banks because they thought they would get high returns on it. They tried to spread the risk but made the situation worst. The rating agencies gave subprime mortgages a low risk rating but they are very high risk rating and this got transferred to the lenders. In the balance sheets the risk would not be shown. Ã¢â¬Å"Many of these mortgages had an introductory period of 1-2 years of very low interest rates. At the end of this period, interest rates increased.Ã¢â¬ [mortgagesguideuka, 24 Feb. 2010]. So this cause mortgages repayment to become expensive after the introductory period because interest rate increased from inflation. Also Ã¢â¬Å"Homeowners also faced lower disposable income because of rising health care costs, rising petrol prices and rising food prices.Ã¢â¬ [mortgagesguideukb, 24 Feb. 2010]. Homeowners found it difficult to hold their houses because it was getting repossess. Many Homeowners were not able to repay the mortgage payments and so this caused an increase in default on their loans. Because of the defaults it was one of the main reasons of the end of housing boom in the US. With housing prices falling this caused further problems with mortgages. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, people with 100% mortgages now faced negative equity. It also meant that the loans were no longer secured. If people did default, the bank couldnt guarantee to recoup the initial loan.Ã¢â¬ [mortgagesguideukc, 24 Feb. 2010]. Many US mortgages companies went bust because of the increase in defaults but mortgage lender were not only to suffer as banks lost money in mortgage debt because of the package they got from US mortgage companies. Now Banks had to write off big losses and made them unwilling to lend, mostly in the subprime sector. This was a domino effect and the affect the rest of the world for borrowing money and raising funds. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, biotech companies rely on Ã¢â¬Ëhigh risk investment and are now struggling to get enough funds.Ã¢â¬ [mortgagesguideukd, 24 Feb. 2010]. Since the borrowing was restricted this also affected the economy with a recession very likely especially in US. But In UK mortgage lender were more controlled in lending than the US. . In the UK many problems occurred with Northern Rock who invested in subprime mortgages. Ã¢â¬Å"Northern rock had a high % of risky loans, but, also had the highest % of loans financed through reselling in the capital markets. When the subprime crisis hit, Northern Rock could no longer raise enough funds in the usual capital market. It was left with a shortfall and eventually had to make the humiliating step to asking the Bank of England for emergency funds. Because the Bank asked for emergency funds, this caused its customers to worry and start to withdraw savings (even though savings werent directly affected).Ã¢â¬ [mortgagesguideuke, 24 Feb. 2010]. Also another banks HBOS having the same situation. This shows that word and mouth can cause total panic in short amount of time. The events in the US caused the same problems in the UK with mortgages being expensive and the market drying up and with high risk mortgages taken away. This cause house prices to fall and homeowner facing negative equity so they default on loan, which makes bank lose more money. For example Ã¢â¬Å"Bradford Bingley was nationalised because it couldnt raise enough finance. The BB had specialised in buy to let loans, which are particularly susceptible to falling house prices.Ã¢â¬ [mortgagesguideukf, 24 Feb. 2010]. This credit crunch may last for a while because house price in the US as well as UK is still going down which makes mortgage loans under valued. Also interest rates are soaring especially when the homeowner finish their inductor periods. If a recession happens in US it could make more bad loans. It will be hard to get more confidence in the financial markets. In conclusion credit crunch could have been avoided if banks had a tighter restriction on access to loans, especially in the US and making sure no bad news circulates as this make people panic and making the situation worst. As for financial liberalisation it is important to introduce an interest rate ceiling on deposit rates to reduce excessive competition among lending institutions for depositors, which may minimize the possibility of financial crisis. Bibliography Books Lecture notes Basu.S. Financial Liberalisation and Intervention: A New Analysis of Credit Rationing Peter Howells and Keith Bain. (2008) The Economics of Money, Banking and finance A European text Fourth edition, Essex, Pearson limited Web Page E. Murat Ucer. Notes on Financial Liberalization, [online] Available from: http://www.econ.chula.ac.th/about/member/sothitorn/liberalization_1.pdf [Accessed 24 Feb 2010] David Budworth, The credit crunch explained, [online] Available from:http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/money/reader_guides/article4530072.ece [Accessed 24 Feb 2010] Credit crunch explained, [online] Available http://www.mortgageguideuk.co.uk/blog/debt/credit-crunch-explained/ [Accessed 24 Feb 2010] John Abbey, The credit crunch explained, [online] Available http://www.johnabbey.co.uk/wsb4919660101/creditcrunch.html [Accessed 24 Feb 2010]
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The economies of Cuba and Puerto Rico are very similar during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. As Spain colonized these two islands in the 16th century under the idea that gold was abundant. Thus in turn the islands became a safe port for Spain and her vessels. It also set out to be a huge migration from the Spain to the islands, because everyone was set to search for gold. . This turned out to be short lived as the mining of gold peaked in 1517 till 1819. By Spain using Cuba and Puerto Rico for mining gold they needed slave laborers as the local Indians. The Indians soon became unsatisfied with their new conditions of living, they became hostile and many not able to cope with being slaves committed suicide and genocide. By 1540 Ã¢â¬â 1550 silver was discovered in Mexico and Peru. As Spain found itsÃ¢â¬â¢ new source of income in Mexico and Peru, it left Cuba and Puerto Rico to literally fend for themselves. By the 1590Ã¢â¬â¢s their economy began to prosper by cattle breedin g and farming as this lead to new jobs on the islands. This new slow and uneven growth led supplies to be more expensive. By the 17th century the cabildos began to govern migration, basically they stopped migration. The Spanish government implemented regulation and restrictions, which in demand increased prices and taxes. As a result, many began to use the black market in order to purchase contraband. At this time agriculture also developed and farming expanded with sugar, coffee and tobacco crops. These new crops also served to encourage new settlements. No longer a remote military outpost, food shortages and inflated prices worsened. Supplies did not increase and money was not sent from Spain. The cost of goods did not decline but contraband increased. In the 18th Century, the English occupy Cuba in 1762 for 10 months, as it helped Cuba to see that they could be with better leadership and if they get the attention they needed. This occupation lead to free trade with England and the American Colonies, in turn it abolished trade tax. Vendors from England arrived offering Cuba consumer goods and industrial items. The ports were open to maritime traffic, which increased markets and increased demands. The new markets also increased prices and stimulated sugar and tobacco production in the absence of Spain. Also in 1797 the English invaded Puerto Rico, which lead to the acquisition of Trinidad.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Risk management is relatively new and emerging practice as far as Indian banks are concerned and has been proved that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a mirror of efficient corporate governance of a financial institution. Globalization and significant competition between foreign and domestic banks, survival and optimizing returns are very crucial for banks and financial institutions. However, selecting the efficient customer and providing innovative and value added financial products and services are another paramount factors. In a volatile and dynamic market place for achieving sustainable business growth and shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s value, it is essential to develop a link between risks and rewards of all products and services of the bank. Hence, the banks should have efficient risk management framework to mitigate all internal and external risks. The objective of this study is to envisage ideal framework of bank-wide risk management for Indian Banks. The presence of accurate measures of bank-wide risk management practice increase shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s returns and allows the risk-taking behavior of bank to be more closely aligned with strategic objectives. Bank-wide risk management practice should aim to enhance the drivers of shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s value such as: Ã¢â¬â 0 Growth; 1 Risk adjusted performance measurement; 2 Consistency of earnings; and 3 Quality and transparency of management. The important steps of the efficient framework of banking concern should ensure all risks are identified, prioritized, quantified, controlled and managed in order to achieve an optimal risk-reward profile. This entails ideal and dedicated coordination of risk management across the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s various business units. However, the approach to monitoring and enforcing the adherence of business units within the bank may vary. The factors that influence this decision are: Ã¢â¬â 4 The feasibility decisions of the business unit. Ã 5 The regulatory requirements in respect of the business unit. 6 The cost of effective monitoring and controlling steps. Risk management is a line function that needs to be addressed by each individual cost center and business unit. However, a centralized bank-wide risk management framework has certain advantages for the Bank. The advantages are: Ã¢â¬â 7 Improving capital efficiency by providing an objective basis for allocating resources reducing expenditures on immaterial risks and exploring natural hedges and portfolio effects; 8 Supporting informed decision making by uncovering areas of high potential adverse impact on drivers of share value, and identifying and exploiting areas of risk-based advantage context. 9 Building investor confidence by establishing a process to stabilize results by protecting them from disturbances, and demonstrating proactive risk stewardship 10 Define cost and profitability centers 11 Profitability and cost allocation on customer, product, services and branch wide Most of the banks do not have dedicated risk management team, policy, procedures and framework in place. Those banks have risk management department, the risk managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role is restricted to pre-fact and post-fact analysis of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s credit and there is no segregation of credit, market, operational and strategic risks. There are few banks have articulated framework and risk quantification. However, the outputs are far from the stressed or actual losses due to usage of un-compatible implications. The traditional lending practices, assessment of credits, handling of market risks *, treasury functionality and culture of risk-rewards are hauls of public sector banks. Where as private sector banks and financial institutions are some-what better in this context. The sheer size and wide coverage of banks is a big hurdle to integrate and generate a cost effective real time operational data for mapping the risks. Most of the financial institutions processes are encircled to Ã¢â¬Ëfunctional silosÃ¢â¬â¢ follows bureaucratic structure and yet to come up with a transparent and appropriate corporate governance structure to achieve the stated strategic objectives. CONCLUSION There are many banks like HSBC, Citibank, Deutsche bank have bank-wide risk management practice which contributed in their global success whereas banks and institutions like Sumitomo Corp, Barings, Bank of America, CSFB and UTI have failed due to lack of efficient bank-wide risk management practice (compliance and operational risks). So the above comments emphasis the necessity of having bank-wide risk management to achieve the stated strategic objectives in a competitive, volatile and dynamic market conditions in an emerging Indian economy. We believe the above-described bank-wide risk management framework is easy workable, cost effective and efficient process without any hassles or hurdles of high-tech tools and techniques
Friday, November 8, 2019
Calculating the young modulus of constanton Essays Calculating the young modulus of constanton Paper Calculating the young modulus of constanton Paper Introduction Constanton is a copper-nickel alloy mainly used in the for its electrical resistance properties. It has a high resistance which is constant over a wide range of temperatures. I am going to find out the Youngs modulus of this wire and observe its behaviour. Apparatus Ã Constanton Wire Ã G-Clamp x2 Ã Pulley Hanging weights Ã Ruler Ã Micrometer Ã Small marker flag Wooden end blocks Ã Sponge Blocks Underlying Theory When a sample is deformed by a force, the deformation is proportional to the magnitude of the force. This is shown by Hookes Law where: Force is equal to a stiffness constant (k) times the extension (e). The force is proportional to the extension. For a sample we can also calculate stress and strain: Where stress is equal to force (F) divided by area (A) and strain is equal to extension (e) divided by original length (l). When you plot these on a Stress-strain graph it proves Hookes law when it is straight line but as soon as the graph curves, the sample is showing plastic deformation as it is past the elastic limit. Using this graph we can work out the Youngs Modulus of a sample which is: This is also measured in Nm-2 or Pascals (Pa). It can also be calculated by working out the gradient on the stress-strain graph. When a wire obeys Hookes Law it deforms elastically. This means that when the load is removed, the wire returns back to its initial length. The atoms in the wire move small distances from their equilibrium positions but then return. After the elastic limit the wire starts to deform plastically. The atoms move within the structure so they cannot return when the load is removed. Measurements Throughout the experiment these measurements will need to be taken and observed: Ã Stress Force and surface area Ã Strain Initial length and the extension Ã Youngs modulus Ã Percentage error error of each piece of equipment. Hookes law (F=ke) Method To measure the Youngs modulus of constanton I will: 1) Set up the equipment as shown. 2) Choose a suitable section of wire from the real that doesnt appear bent, twisted or deformed. Measure the diameter of the wire with a micrometer before attaching it to the weights. 3) Attach a marker flag so the extension can be measured. 4) Start the experiment by measuring the initial length of wire and adding the 100g weights and measuring the new length each time. 5) Record your results in a table and plot a stress-strain graph using these results. Weight (g) Mass (N). Length (mm) Stress (Nm-2/Pa) Strain 6) Repeat the experiment three times or until you get a set of similar results. Results Experiment 1 In the first attempt at calculating the youngs modulus of constanton i used 0. 44mm diameter wire with an initial length of 500mm. I measured both in millimetres because this would avoid converting units when calculating the strain of the wire (e/l). The wire only extended by 1mm when 1700g were added to it so I abandoned the experiment and changed my method slightly to get more extension for mass. Experiment 2 I changed the diameter of wire used to 0. 23mm which is almost half the thickness than before. By using thinner wire we should see more extension for the amount of weight added so we can measure it with a ruler more easily. The initial length of wire was also 500mm. When i carried out the experiment the wire proved to be too thin because as only 500g was added the wire started to show rapid plastic deformation and continued to extend by roughly 6% (30mm) of its original length before the wire broke. Experiment 3 I changed the diameter again so I could record more conclusive results. I used a diameter of wire in between the diameters of the first two experiment (0.31mm) and an initial length of 500mm. I still couldnt record too accurate results as the wire didnt extend enough so I could only plot three points on a graph before it showed plastic behaviour. Further experimental changes were needed. Experiment 4 This time I changed the initial length of wire used to 800mm from 500mm. This would amplify the extension so I could measure it with the ruler because the rate of extension would increase and also the amount of extension would increase. By increasing the initial length of wire it would also decrease the percentage error in the measurement of the wire with the ruler. The percentage error goes from 0. 1% to 0. 063%. Experiment 5 This was a repeat to check the accuracy of experiment 4. In this experiment i encountered a few problems. The knot holding the weight hangers on kept slipping and the results found did not match the pervious pattern. Experiment 6 This was my third repeat of experiment 4. This gave me a fairly similar set of results to experiment 4. Due to time restrictions, no more experiments could be carried out to do a third repeat. Calculations Using the diameter to work out the surface area. Let x = diameter X 10-3 = to change from millimetres to metresi 2 = to change diameter into radius Then substitute it into the formula for the area of a circle. Change grams into Newtons for force. Which is equivalent to i 10 Ã Changing Pascals (Pa) into Megapascals (MPa) Ã Working out gradient to find the Youngs Modulus. Graphs To plot the graphs i only plotted points where the wire extended by a millimetre because the wire was extending between those points but I could not take sensitive enough measurements with a ruler. To plot the graphs i also changed Stress from Pascals (Pa) to Megapascals (MPa) to make it easier to plot on the graph. I also used the graphs to work out the Youngs Modulus of the Constanton by finding the gradient of the graph before it reached the elastic limit. Inaccuracies Here are some factors that may have caused some inaccuracies in my measurements: * The wire may contain impurities that change the way the wire behaves. This cannot be helped. * By attaching a pointer you can affect the sample by restricting the way it behaves. To avoid causing too many inaccuracies use as thin a pointer as possible so there is as little as possible touching the sample. The pulley wheel may cause friction but this is the most sensible way of converting horizontal movement into vertical. Ã There also may be bends or variation in cross sectional area in the wire. To minimise the risk of this, dont use the first few metres of wire until you find a section that looks roughly undamaged. Percentage Errors The main source of percentage error is in the measurement of the diameter taken by the micrometer even though the micrometer is accurate to i 0. 005mm and the ruler is only accurate to i 0. 5mm. In experiments 4, 5, and 6: % error of diameter = [ i0. 005 / 0. 31] x 100 = 1. 6% % error of length = [ i 0. 5 / 800 ] x 100 = 0. 06% Other sources of percentage error are: Diameter of the wire which is an example of uncertainty in the measurements. Actual mass of the weights which is an example of systematic error. Conclusion Using experiments 4 and 6 I was able to work out my youngs modulus of Constanton by finding the gradient of the initial straight part of my graph. Experiment 4 = 280GPa Experiment 6 = 240GPa The real value of the youngs modulus is 162GPa so I am out by approximately a factor of two. This is not too far away from the true value considering the huge uncertainties involved with my measurement technique. To improve my accuracy I would either have to improve my measurement techniques or change my method completely. In conclusion, the method was affective for demonstrating the affects of Hookes law but not for measuring accurately the youngs modulus of constanton. Modifications in the Method Ã Attaching the pointer to the pulley stops the pointer coming into contact with the sample of wire which could obstruct deformation but if the wire extends more than the pulley can measure then the experiment will not work. Illuminate the pointer to produce a magnified shadow of the movement. This makes it easier to see movement and allows for more accurate measurement however you need to calculate and calibrate magnification. Ã Use wire that isnt wound round a real because it distorted the start point of my curve. A typical youngs modulus curve starts at the origin but mine doesnt because first few hundred grams was used to apply tension to the wire to bend out the curves.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Rain man essays In the 1988 film Rain Man it portrays a man ( Raymond Babbit) with autism. Throughout the movie Raymonds limitations and unusual exceptional abilities are shown. These consist of memories, calculations, environment as well as his behavior towards certain situations and people. One limitation Raymond possesses is how he responds to new environments and people, one example being when he met his brother Charlie and got nervous and began to recite baseball. Another incident being when he was asked, if $.50 is spent out of a dollar how much is left, and Raymond answered 75. This could mean he either cannot subtract or could not answer the question because of how it was asked. A third limitation of an average ability would be Raymonds need to have a set schedule. For instance, he needs to eat certain foods at a specific time, as well as watch his television shows (such as jeopardy) and needs to be in bed by eleven at night every night or he begins to panic. Spontaneous occurrences and things out of the ordinary scare him. A fourth problem of this particular case of autism is social communication. It takes Raymond a longer time to answer if he answers at all. One example of this would be the end of the movie where he is being asked many questions about where and who he wants to stay with. He has trouble understanding specifically what he is being asked and how to answer it. A fifth limitation is his reaction to situations he has never been put in. One of these being the fire alarm that went off, he overreacts because he doesnt know what else to do, also in the airport when he doesnt want to go on the plane because he knows it is not safe. When Raymond is put in situations that he knows are not safe he panics. Lastly of Raymond limitations are how he always repeats himself. It seems as though he does this to reassure himself rather than anyone else. Although Raymond Babbit has many limitations be ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Pricing of real estate - Case Study Example Real options have been in existence since centuries and the earliest references are found in the story of Thales, a Greek philosopher. Thales predicted a bumper olive harvest and paid a large premium to local olive refiners for the right to hire their entire olive pressing facilities for a specified fee during that year's harvest season.'Thales however did not have the obligation to use the facilities and had the option to let his right lapse if he chose to do so, at the cost of losing the premium he had paid already. The bumper crop did take place and Thales exercised his real option. He allowed other producers to use the facilities he had got at a predetermined price, but at a large additional premium. Thales is said to have profited immensely by his use of the real option. Real options in real estate are best illustrated by examples. Consider a prospective home owner who identifies a dream home available at an attractive price. Several others too would have arrived at the same conclusion and may be ready to make competitive offers. The first homeowner however does not have his finances tied up and needs a fortnight to get it done. Waiting for a fortnight may push the dream home into another's possession, a situation that throws up the concept of a real option. The prospective owner could offer the seller a sum of money just to hold the property for the two weeks he needs to arrange the funds and buy the home at the offering price. If the funds don't come through or if he changes his mind, he loses the money paid, while the seller keeps the sum of money and can easily find another buyer from among the numerous others interested in buying the property. Just how much the sum paid should be involves putting a value on the real option. A similar situation may arise in the case of a real estate development company holding vacant land. The possession of vacant land confers a right or an option, but not an obligation, to develop a completed building at a future date. The value of vacant land is a consequence of this right to develop an asset, the completed construction, at a price, the cost of construction. The decision to build or not and when to build if at all, are subject to several uncertainties. The future value of the constructed building may be uncertain - if property values rise, the builder is more certain of profits, while lower values at a specified time may justify delaying construction by avoiding potential losses. Delaying the construction may make more information available, allowing for a change in land utilization, nature of the project, tenant mix, funding options etc. The option to wait itself becomes valuable. Thus the uncertainty by itself has value, and if that value can be quantified, the decision making process would become more accurate. Real options analysis thus assumes relevance and importance in real estate pricing by allowing a value to be put on uncertainty. The value of the real option increases when uncertainty about the future value of the built property increases. Thus, development of the property will take place when the value of the completed project exceeds the costs by a premium determined by a combination of uncertainty of asset value, irreversibility of the development and the choice of waiting. In many cases, projects that might have been dropped as unviable become attractive when associated real options are evaluated and quantified. In a
Friday, November 1, 2019
Please write a response on two episodes - Essay Example He is undeniably intrigued by a scientific approach taken to food and he very subtly also inculcates this interest in the viewers also. It is normally thought that when it comes to food, one cannot reinvent the wheel. However, Ferran Adria is one man who experiments with his food in a laboratory which suggests that the wheel is in fact reinvented. Bourdain certainly has a very distinct food philosophy which he seems to energetically defend in this video, Decoding Ferran Adria. The bedrock of this food philosophy is formed by the idea that the most riveting and soulful kind of food cannot be produced under laboratory conditions. Such kind of food is mostly found in the most chaotic kind of kitchens where sweating chefs struggle to keep up with the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ orders. However, the revolutionary approach taken to food by Adria appears to have mesmerized Bourdain because it somehow turns out to be