Friday, August 23, 2019
History - Essay Example The movement received wide level of recognition and support among the urban youths and the marginalised urban poor. In the same way, supporters of the movement included diverse grassroots organizations from the rural areas and provincial cities, peasant organizations, civic, political and economic networks, and professional cadres. The proponents of the movement also aimed at dismantling dictatorship and building Ã¢â¬Å"a democratic state that prioritised the demands of the excluded and exploited majority and their full participation in deciding the agenda of their communities and of the nationÃ¢â¬ (Dupuy 91). A critical evaluation of the movement convinces one that the legacy of HaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s revolution has had great influence on the objectives, as well as outcome, of the Lavalas movement and this calls for the need to unearth the influences of Haitian revolution on the Lavalas movement. The Haitian Revolution has often been regarded as the most successful rebellion initiated by the slaves in 1791that culminated in the abolition of slavery and French domination. In fact, the revolutionaries were influenced by the French revolution itself and fought for equality, fraternity and liberty. Even though, the Haiti revolution was proved to be successful, poverty, were political and economic instability haunted the nation.
Hiring a New Bartender - Essay Example ch as determining the need for recruiting, conducting a job analysis, writing a job description and specification for the candidate, fixing the appropriate salary, deciding how and where to find the prospective employees and interviewing them ("The Interview Process: Selecting the right personÃ¢â¬ par. 2). Mr. Peter Luger has the task of hiring a new bartender. There are four applicants for consideration and as such, he will have to scrutinize every personÃ¢â¬â¢s skill and level of qualification before making his choice. John is twenty-five years of age; therefore, he is mature enough to handle the pressures of having to work with the presumably aged people who visit the bar. Since the bar has been in existence for ten years, Luger wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to tamper with the reputation that he has already built. At twenty-five, John is neither too old to handle the job nor too youthful to mishandle the patrons of the bar. The fact that he is a college graduate implies that he has the required academic qualifications for the job at hand. John is also experienced in the restaurant business; therefore, there should be no problem on his side handling the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ food. Serving alcohol represents a new challenge for the man but since he is an adventurous person, selling alcohol would offer no difficulties for him. Mr. LugerÃ¢â¬â¢s sports bar and grill closes late in the night and as such, it is necessary for the bartender to be willing to comply with the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes. John has his own means of transportation; therefore, Luger should have no problem convincing the bartender to leave the bar late at night. The only point of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s undoing is his temper. High tempered individuals may not be the best persons to hire in a position that requires tolerance such as that of being a bartender. It is common knowledge that drunken people are bound to behave arrogantly and sometimes abusively, therefore, this might not bode well for John. Should John lose his temper while handling some of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Hopi Indians Essay The name Moqui, or Moki, by which they have been popularly known, means dead in their own language, but as a tribal name it is seemingly of alien origin and of undetermined signification Bandelier and Cushing believed the Hopi country, the later province of Tusayan, to be identical with the Totonteac of Fray Marcos de Niza. The Hopi first became known to white men in the summer of 1540 Located in Arizona Buildings like steps Natacka Festival: This festival is somewhat like Halloween, only the trick and treaters are adult men. During the 9-day Hopi purification ceremony, giant Natackas (men in costume) go from house to house, begging. The Natackas hoot and whistle if they are turned down. Jewelry: The southwestern tribes used turquoise to make jewelry, and still do. They believed turquoise was the stone of happiness, health, and good fortune. Before kids could become adults and marry, they had to pass a test of courage. Girls would go off with the women, and boys with the men. The actual coming of age ceremony for each individual was secret. But all ceremonies were tests of courage. Infants: A blanket and a perfect ear of corn were given to an infant child. Parents couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t name the babies, the village leaders had to. Naming a baby was very important to the Hopi. Everyone in the village made suggestions. The parents would not be the ones to finally name the baby. That honor was reserved for the tribal or village leaders, not the parents. But everyone in the family could come with blessings and give suggestions of names for the baby. Have their own reservation called Hopi Reservation The Hopi Way is one of peace and is holistic; their name Hopituh Shi-nu-mu, can be interpreted as The Peaceful Little People. All of daily life is part of their religion, and their belief is to help others improve their life. Twelve clan groups, called phratries, have many clans within them, each with its own ceremonies and sacred fetishes. Though men are the religious leaders, the children inherit the clan of their mother. Though the men own the livestock and the fruit trees, the women own all the land, even that under the fruit trees. As many as 24 varieties of corn are grown and due to arid conditions the roots may grow 20 feet down. Each plant has many ears of corn. To supplement the staple of corn the Hopi gather more than 100 wild plants. Kivas are the center of religious life and are mostly used by the men. Stone walls line the underground chambers and a hole sipapu in the floor of the kiva symbolizes the exit from the ant peoples domain. Religion is life for the Hopi and binds the village into a solid community. Most ceremonies relate to rain. Katsinas or kachinas, of which there are about 350, are the guarding spirits that come down from their world at winter solstice, remaining in the people until summer solstice. Saquasohuh is believed by some to represent the Hale-Bopp comet. The Wuwuchim ceremony includes a song that tells of this, and this song was sang in 1914, preceeding WWI, in 1940, pre WWII, and again in 1961. The Hopi say that the emergence into the Fifth World of the future has begun. The sacred clowns of the Hopi have a unique function in their society and the religious right to enact by negative example what should not be done. Humiliation and ridicule are their methods, and no one is immune to their rudeness. Stripping another naked is not going too far. Misbehavior of people in the community is dramatized, and the culprit takes the hint. The clowns are the ultimate tradition keepers. If work needs to be done the clowns recruit the workers. They cannot be denied. White ways, such as money, missionaries, and teachers sent to the Hopi have been the subject of the clowns derision. The Hopi are skilled in weaving, dyeing, and embroidering blankets, belts, and kilts. Their textile work is durable, and shows a great variety of weaves. The dark-blue blanket of the Hopi woman is an important article of commerce among the Pueblos, and their embroidered ceremonial blankets, sashes, and kilts made of cotton have a ready sale among neighboring tribes. Although the Hopi ceramic art has somewhat deteriorated in modern times, fair pottery is still made among the people of Hano, where one family has revived the superior art of the earlier villagers. They weave basketry in a great variety of ways at the Middle Mesa pueblos and in Oraibi; but, with the exception of the familiar sacred-meal plaques, which are well made and brightly colored, the workmanship is crude. The Hopi are clever in making masks and other religious paraphernalia from hides, and excel in carving and painting dolls, representing kachinas, which are adorned with bright feathers and cloth. They likewise manufacture mechanical toys, which are exhibited in some of their dramatic entertainments. Nowhere among the aborigines of North America are the Hopi excelled in dramaturgic exhibitions, in some of which their imitations of birds and other animals are marvelously realistic. Most ceremonies relate to rain. Katsinas or kachinas, of which there are about 350, are the guarding spirits that come down from their world at winter solstice, remaining in the people until summer solstice. White ways, such as money, missionaries, and teachers sent to the Hopi have been the subject of the clowns derision. The clowns are the ultimate tradition keepers. If work needs to be done the clowns recruit the workers. They cannot be denied. The sacred clowns of the Hopi have a unique function in their society and the religious right to enact by negative example what should not be done. Humiliation and ridicule are their methods, and no one is immune to their rudeness. Stripping another naked is not going too far. Misbehavior of people in the community is dramatized, and the culprit takes the hint.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Management Strategies in Healthcare 1.1 List factors under the control of healthcare managers that contribute to the decrease in the number of people applying to health professions schools. Describe the steps that healthcare organizations can take to improve this situation. The factors that contribute to the decrease in the number of people applying to health professions schools can be identified through making use of an environmental assessment. Environmental assessment is a vital element of strategic human resources management. Factors affecting the healthcare environment are as follows: increasing workforce diversity, aging workforce, shortages, different changes in terms of the values and attitudes of the workers, and advancement of technology (Fried Fottler, 2011). Managers are expected to have the knowledge both on the present and future operating environments. He or she must assess the internal strengths and weaknesses for him or her to formulate plans based from the results of the assessment. They responded to these factors through the different internal structural change, which includes the following: development of network structure, collaborating with healthcare systems, participating in mergers and acquisition, developing work teams, developing quality improvement, making use of telecommunication, leasing the employees, outsourcing work, making use of additional temporary or contingent workers, and forming medical tourism (Fried Fottler, 2011). The strategic approach to human resource management that can be used to improve this situation are as follows: assessment on both the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and mission, formulating a business strategy, identifying the different HR requirements needed to implement business strategy, comparing the current HR inventory to future strategic requirements in terms of numbers and required skills, developing HR strategy to close the gap on both the current inventory and future requirements, and implementing appropriate HR practices to strengthen the business strategy (Fried Fottler, 2011). The seven HR managements can also be used to intervene the given situation. These includes the following: providing employment security, using different criteria during the selection of personnel, making use of self-managed teams and taking decentralization to be the basic elements of organizational design, offering a high compensation, training extensively, reducing status distinction and barriers, and sharing performance and financial information (Fried Fottler, 2011). References Fried, B., Fottler, M. (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Health Administration Press, Chicago, IL. AUPHA Press, Washington D.C. 1.2 What are the organizational advantages of integrating strategic management and human resources management? What are the steps involved in such an integration? The advantages of integrating strategic management and human recourse management are as follows (Fried Fottler, 2011): Proactive behavior is encouraged rather than reactive behavior. Company goals are communicated explicitly. Gaps between the current situation and a vision of the future are focused on. Line managers are involved in the human resource planning process. Human resource opportunities and constraints are identified in implementing strategic plans. In addition to that, it also improves clinical outcomes, enhances service quality, increases market share, and improve financial returns (Fried Fottler, 2011). The strategic approach to human resource management steps are as follows: assessment on both the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and mission, formulating a business strategy, identifying the different HR requirements needed to implement business strategy, comparing the current HR inventory to future strategic requirements in terms of numbers and required skills, developing HR strategy to close the gap on both the current inventory and future requirements, and implementing appropriate HR practices to strengthen the business strategy (Fried Fottler, 2011). References Fried, B., Fottler, M. (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Health Administration Press, Chicago, IL. AUPHA Press, Washington D.C. 2.1 Describe the process of professionalization. What is the difference between a profession and an occupation? Use what you do as an example. Professionalization is considered as a social process by which there is a transformation of any trade or occupation into a real profession. The process includes developing acceptable qualifications, a professional body, or even an association that will oversee the conduct of members of the profession. This process tends to develop the group norms of conduct and insists that the members of the profession must follow with the developed procedures and of any agreed code of conduct (Crossman, 2014). The difference between these two terms is important because healthcare continues to evolve. The terms occupation and profession are usually used interchangeably; however, these terms can be differentiated. Occupation is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s principal activity and means of support. High skilled specialization is not required. It is usually supervised, follows to a defined work schedule, and earns an hourly wage. A person in an occupation is usually trained for a particular job or function, and because of this, they are less able to transfer from one organization to another (Fried Fottler, 2011). In profession, knowledge and training are required. They have more authority and responsibility compared with non-professionals. They follow a code of ethics. In addition to that, they have more autonomy in determining the content of service he or she provides as well as in monitoring his or her workload. Furthermore, a professional earns a salary, obtains a higher education, and works in independence and mobility compared with a nonprofessionals (Fried Fottler, 2011). In my own personal experience, I am a professional nurse. I was able to finish 4years of Bachelor of Science in Nursing. As a professional nurse, I underwent trainings, follow a code of ethics, and passed a state licensure examination to practice my profession. References Crossman, A. (2014). Professionalization. Retrieved from http://sociology.about.com/od/P_Index/g/Professionalization.htm Fried, B., Fottler, M. (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Health Administration Press, Chicago, IL. AUPHA Press, Washington D.C. 2.2 Describe the major types of healthcare professionals (excluding physicians and dentists) and their roles, training, licensure requirements, and practice settings. The industry of healthcare is considered as the largest and most powerful industry in the United States. Healthcare professionals include the following: Nurses The focus of nurses is not only on a specific health problem but also on the totality of a patient and his response to treatment. The roles and function of a nurse are as follows: caregiver, communicator, teacher, client advocate, counselor, leader, manager, and so on. The nursing field comprises many specialties and subspecialties such as critical care, infection control, emergency nursing, surgical nursing, and obstetric nursing; certification in these areas require specialty education, practical experience, and successful completion of a national examination nonprofessionals (Fried Fottler, 2011). Registered nurses must complete an associate degree in nursing, a diploma program, or a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in nursing to qualify for the licensure examination. The Associate Degree in Nursing Program takes 2years to complete and is offered usually by community and junior colleges. The Hospital Diploma Program can be completed approximately 3years. The bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree can be completed in 4years and is usually offered by colleges and universities. Licensed practical nurses are state-licensed caregivers who have been trained to care for the sick. They must complete a state-approved program in the practical nursing and must achieve a passing score on the national examination. Advanced practice nurses have education and experience beyond the basic training and licensing required of all RNs. This includes nurse practitioners and the following: Clinical nurse specialists have training in a field such as cardiac, psychiatric, or community health. Certified nurse midwives have training in womens healthcare needs, including prenatal care, labor and delivery, and care of a woman who has given birth. Certified registered nurse anesthetists have training in the field of anesthesia (National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists, 2014). Pharmacists Pharmacists dispense prescription medications to patients and offer expertise in the safe use of prescriptions. They also may provide advice on how to lead a healthy lifestyle, conduct health and wellness screenings, provide immunizations, and oversee the medications given to patients. To have the eligibility for licensure, they must graduate from an accredited bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree program in pharmacy, successfully complete a state board examination, and obtain a practical experience or complete a supervised internship. The trend of pharmacy has broadened education to include the terminal degree doctor of pharmacy. Many pharmacy schools offer this program to those who have the interest in teaching, research, and administrative responsibilities and to those willing to be part of the patient care team This educational preparation also requires one to have a successful completion of the state board of examination and even other practical experience as needed by state laws nonprofess ionals (Fried Fottler, 2011). Allied Health Professionals The allied health professions are a huge group that consists of therapists, medical and radiologic technologists, social workers, health educators, and other ancillary personnel. These professionals may work in the areas such as disease prevention, dietary and nutrition services, rehabilitation, or therapy. Educational and training programs for the allied health profession are sponsored by a variety of organizations in different academic and clinical settings. Their practice settings include hospitals, clinics, community health, homecare, and so on. The National Commission on Allied Health divides allied health professionals into two categories: therapists/technologists and technicians/assistants. The former represents those with higher-level professional training and who are responsible for supervising those in the technician/assistant category nonprofessionals (Fried Fottler, 2011). Healthcare Administrators Health administrators are leaders. They are usually assigned in the hospitals, physician group practices, nursing homes, and home health agencies. They direct the operation of hospitals, health systems, and other types of organizations. Healthcare administrators also take responsibility for facilities, services, programs, staff, budgets, relations with other organizations, and other management functions, depending on the type and size of the organization. They also have an opportunity to work in the public sector and private sectors. They do not deal directly with patients on a day-to-day basis. Rather, they help to shape policy, make needed changes, and lead our nations health-related organizations in a way that serves individual patients by helping to improve the healthcare system. To be eligible, many higher-level healthcare administration executives have a masters degree in a field such as public health or business, hospital, or nursing administration. A bachelors degree is often sufficient for entry-level positions or for employment with smaller facilities when coupled with relevant healthcare experience. Certification and Licensing: Healthcare administrators who work as nursing home administrators must also pass the National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Exam and obtain state licensure. Healthcare administrators in other sectors are not required to be licensed; however, voluntary certification is available through the American College of Healthcare Administrators (American College of Healthcare Executives, 2014). References American College of Healthcare Executives. (2014). Early careerist question. Retrieved from http://www.ache.org/carsvcs/CareerFAQ/early.cfm Fried, B.J., Fottler, M.D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press. National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists. (2014). CNS FAQs. Retrieved from http://www.nacns.org/html/cns-faqs.php 3.1 Why is sexual harassment so prevalent in the healthcare environment? What can be done to break this pattern? Sexual harassment is prevalent in the healthcare environment as a result of feminism, the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement, increasing societal attention, and equal accommodation in the workplace. In addition to that, the growth of women in the workplace is also one of the factors. Several factors also explain why it is prevalent in healthcare organizations. First, sexual harassment always includes an element of power and control. Most hospital employees are women, but those in the authoritative position are men. Second, intimacy among healthcare providers has been the nature of healthcare workÃ¢â¬âhaving a strong collegial relationship established under a high-stress environment of healthcare and having sexual jokes and off-color humors that will later on lead to an abusive, suggestive language (Fried Fottler, 2011). To break this pattern, putting in place a sexual harassment policy must be implemented; this includes the following (Fried Fottler, 2011): Having a strong definition of what is sexual harassment and developing a strong statement that it will not be tolerated. Conducting an extensive training among all employees on the policy, focusing on employees with management and supervisory authority. Giving instructions on how to report complaints, including procedures to bypass a supervisor if there is the involvement of a supervisor. Providing an assurance on confidentiality, protecting against retaliation, and having a guarantee of prompt investigation. Forming a statement that disciplinary action will be taken against harassers up to and including termination. References Fried, B.J., Fottler, M.D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press. 3.2 Under what circumstances would you use a progressive discipline process? When would you choose not to use such a procedure? Progressive discipline is a process that deals with job-related behavior that does not meet an expected standard. Assisting the employee in understanding that a performance problem or opportunity for improvement is the primary purpose (Heathfield, 2014). It is most successful when a person is able to perform effectively in an organization. Steps in a progressive discipline include the following (Heathfield, 2014). Counseling the employee about performance and ascertain his or her understanding of requirements. Verbally reprimanding the employee for poor performance. Providing a written verbal warning in the employees file, in an effort to improve employee performance. Providing an escalating number of days in which the employee is suspended from work. Starts with 1day and escalate to 5days. A healthcare administrator would not use this process when he or she sees that there is already a serious unlawful involvement such as theft, alcohol or drug intoxication at work, misconduct behavior, and any acts of violence that are ground for immediate termination. References Heathfield, S. (2014). Progressive discipline. Retrieved from http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryd/a/discipline.htm
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Profile of Henri Fayol, a Founding Father of Management Background and Carrier Henri Fayol was a French industrialist and manager, working in the mine industry and looking for applicable solution to business management. He went to school in Lyon (the second largest city of France) and enrolled at the engineering school of Saint-Etienne (Ecole Nationale des Mines). He received an education as a mine engineer and graduated in 1860 from this school at the age of 19. He was first employed as an engineer at Boigues, Rambourg and Co. In 1874, this company became Commentry-Fourchambault SA or Comambault). It is important to notice he spend all his professional life in the same company experiencing its expansion and knowing well its structure and production methods. Fayol was first remarked as an engineer when he wrote a paper proposing a solution to fire hazard, fire fitting and spontaneous combustion in mine, destructing men and installations. In 1866, he was appointed director of a single mine of Commentry at the age of 25. The company was going through expansion an d added several other mines to the company in other part of France such as Monvicq coal mine and Berry Iron Ore Mine. He became the directors of those mines as well at the age of 31. In the same time, those expansions did not translated in increase of dividend. Quite the contrary, Fayol had to face the fact that Comambault was in dire financial straits. In the late 1880s, the company had failed to pay dividends for at least 4 years. In 1888, at the age of 47 he became the CEO of the Comambault conglomerate. The objective of his mission as a CEO was to make the company viable again which he did. He worked closely with his managers to turn the company around, closing inefficient units, investing in research and technology and expanding the geographical base of the company. In 1908, in a discourse he gave he reminded this episode of industrial history: In 1888, the company Commentry-Fourchambault was on the verge of disappearing in abandoning its plants and in resuming the exhaustion of the mine stocks, when a change of head office came. Since then, the company prospered again. The companys history shows that its fall and rising are uniquely an effect of the administrative process employed. This is with the same mines and the same plants, with the same financial resources, in the same commercial situation, the same board of directors, and the same personal that the company raises again to this moment. Therefore, some administrative methods leave the company to its ruin; other methods give it its prosperity back. Work, experience, knowledge and good will of several thousands of people had been sterilized by some dysfunctional administrative process. And other administrative processes emphasize all its strength. Fayol was head of a very large business with over 10,000 employees, which at the time, was comparable to todays international companies. He remained CEO until his retirement at the end of WWI, in 1918. Before his retirement in 1916, Fayol published his main book Administration Industrielle et Generale in the professional publication called Bulletin de la SociÃ ©tÃ © de lindustrie minÃ ©rale. In 1917, he sets up the Centre for Administrative Studies (CAS) in Paris. His reflections were published as a book only in 1925, the year of his death. This centre was important in diffusing his ideas. It organised seminars and colloquium with industrialists, public sector officials of the French state, engineers, the military, and various academics. The CAS was a platform from which collaboration and further works could be done. From 1921 to 1925, he collaborated to several studies on behalf of the Frenchs public sector. Notably, he produced a study of the Post and Telecom Department as well as the French Tobacco and Match monopoly. Why a founding Father of Management? One remarkable feature about Henri Fayols influence in management is the fact that he is little known compared to Taylor (1856-1915) who lived roughly at the same time. The epoch of the great development of the XIX century industry does not explain why one hits more fame than the other. In 1912, Charles de la Poix de FrÃ ©minville met Taylor and stated to spread the principles of Taylorian organisation of work. Taylors work dealt with the workshop of manufacturing and Fayols with the mining industry and its general management. One must say that one aspects of the relative slow diffusion of Fayols ideas, is due to timing. In 1916 and 1918, France was dealing with the WWI and its aftermath. Although many of Fayols principles he developed in studies during 1921-25 could have been used for bettering the management of the French state agencies and enterprises were not followed. The reason have to be found in the institutional change of France at the time, whereby France was separating th e church from the state in education, the growth of the public sector, labour union and large businesses correlated with the rise of professional managers and the interest in technology development. My view is that, for ideological reason, when the French state was trying to reinforce itself (by establishing national system of education, nationalisation of companies (train system, post telecom, etc.) but also vis-Ã -vis the threat of Germany), Fayols pragmatic criticism and suggestion to change the states forms of management were not always welcome. The reinforcement of the state own industry and the regulation of market by state agencies went well until 1986. That is in the large part, the reason why the French themselves did not consider Henri Fayols work the convenient resource to deal with the management of the Frenchs state agencies and industries. The US business school considered Henri Fayols works worth teaching their undergraduates. It only since the last 10 years (around the end of the 1990) Frenchs scholars have been studying back their own managerial roots. Despite the history of how Fayols ideas come about, one may ask us what is important in them to be consider foundational to management thought. In fact, there is, as any classical management thinker, a basic originality in Fayols proposition on the need of management regarding the dealing of the industry. Fayols Originality To a large extend, all management thinkers and practitioners view the management function as the means to organise technical function of the business toward an optimal economic efficiency. In this respect, Henri Fayol, Frederick Taylor or Alfred Sloan do not differ in their aim. One can find Fayols formulation of the role of management in the industry in a talk he gave in 1900 at the CongrÃ ©s International des Mines et de la Metallurgie. Fayol makes the following remarks: The technical and commercial services are rather well defined, which is not the case of the administrative services. The way it is built and the attribution it fulfils are not well known, its operations are not immediately clear. It does not visibly built, forge, sell or buy but nevertheless, everybody knows that if it does not work well, the company goes downhill. [Something on] recruitment: It is necessary to link theory and practice in engineers education. But it is about the proportion of each we may differ. Some think one needs to overcharge the programs as well as the lectures given in the engineering schools, other think that we have already reached the limit of theoretical teaching and that one waist our elites youth one or two years that would be better employed in active life. He also make clear in his Book, General and Industrial Management, the difference of skills and attention one needs to deal with engineering work and management work. Fayol drew attention to the need for schools and universities to educate people about administration as a topic of its own right (in conjunction to engineering, and not engineering alone). The point of his reflection on the education needs of the engineers was trying to deal with the qualities required to make a good manager rather than relying on the formal rules of engineering, its aura amongst the bourgeoisie to provide good job to their kids. For that matter, the list of qualities needed to get effective manager is rather dissimilar to what is required to be an engineer alone: Physical qualities: health, vigor, address (manner of behaving) Mental qualities: ability to understand, judge and adapt Moral qualities: energy, firmness, willingness to accept responsibility, initiative, tact, loyalty and dignity General education Special knowledge: pertaining to the functional context of work, function, technical and so on. Experience: knowledge of work, recollection of lessons from experience. Fayol take the need of education very seriously. He indicates three main sources of issues that can potentially trouble the good education of managers: (a) the problem of industrial concentration, (b) the role of higher technical education and its abuse of mathematics and (c) intellectual curiosity. The problem of industrial concentration Managing great business has always presented great difficulties. To get a grasp of it, suffice to glimpse over the various charges a CEO has to take into account. Those difficulties are inherent to the nature of things and have existed at all time. But what did not exist all the time was the recent industrial development and industrial concentration which increased considerably the proportion of big deals and show the lack of good CEO. The role of higher education and the abuse of mathematics We abuse mathematics in the belief that more one knows it, more one is able to govern businesses. Also, [we are in the belief that] their study, more than anything else, develops and makes the judgement correct. Those are mistakes which cause serious issues to our country and which seems to me useful to fight. () A long personal experience taught me that the use of higher mathematics is worthless in business management, and that engineers, pitworkers or steelworkers almost never use it. I firmly believe that elementary mathematics contribute to form your judgement, as all other branches of general culture. I nevertheless do not believe that an intense higher mathematical culture, imposed without necessity to future engineers has the same effect. The excessive culture of any kind of science is unhealthy to both the physic and the intellect. The studies of mathematics do not make exception. Studied at length with intensity, it leaves intact only the well balanced brains. One sees transcending mathematicians without common sense and we see numerous men of common sense who are not mathematicians. Intellectual curiosity You are not prepared to take the direction of a company, even small. School did not give you the administration, commercial and accountancy notions you need to be a CEO. Even if school would have provided them, you will still lack practice and experience that can only be acquired by the contact of men and things. () one asks you to bring with you your diploma, reflection, logic and a spirit of observation and dedication to the accomplishment of your task. Work to complete your professional knowledge, but do not neglect general instruction. Directors inspiring high esteem and admiration never stopped, you will see, to learn through constant effort. () You belong to the intellectual elite, so you should not be uninterested in news, you should be aware of the general ideas agitating modern society in all domains. One sees that Fayol saw that the engineering education (such as he received with its predominance of mathematics) did not answer the challenge one is facing when dealing with organisation and human matters. He saw in management the field of practice and reflection that was needed in the domain where engineering, although provide efficient techniques for dealing with materials, was unable to address the human aspects. It does not mean that management was a sort of humanism but the normal counter-part of the rationalisation of an organisation (private or public) having in mind that one needs to take a special attention to the question of human organisation if one wants an industry to function. Fayols Administrative Theory As a result of his experience and of a continuous reflection on the way to make corporation work best, in situation of change, he reckons one needs to establish an administrative theory which takes into account: The need of projections. It demands to establish a system of yearly projections for the long term objectives and monthly projections for special activities in the company fitting the global planning. The role of projection for the personal is to be able to assess what has been achieved as people go on working. To fight bureaucracy by facilitating the face to face relations, avoiding the multiplicity of hierarchies which increase the irresponsibility of the directors. Also one needs to stability in hierarchy and the possibility to reward or penalize the use of power. Pragmatism has to be applied in the division of labour by controlling decisions to be always balanced with the situation. The need to use control managers to be able to take decisions rapidly before it turns to be catastrophic. In the general literature in management, Fayol is often seen as the top-down manager that worked out the tools of governance to the distribution of task. In fact, his main focus was not to formalise the tools of decision making in a simple chart to follow. Fayols point was that an organisation could not be managed with a simplest view concerning both the function of the organisation and its human components. And for that matter, it is first necessary to consider the organisation, not simply from the tasks analysis view following technology application the industry, but as an integration of several key functions. In other words, Fayol invites us to grasp at once the complexity of the management of business organisation by taking into account the following functions: Techniques (production, transformation), commerce (business and sales), finance (capital management and research), security (protection of goods and persons), accounting (balance sheet, inventory, factory price, statistics, etc) and administration (foresight, organisation, command, coordination and control). Donald Reid (in his paper on Fayol called Fayol: From Experience to Theory) make clear that Fayol, as a practitioner, did accumulate a number of industrial and managerial experience before putting his ideas on paper. He kept copious notes of his observations, having a particular interest in organisational failure and the nature of responsibility and authority among key decision makers. In 1861, Fayol write in his notebook an example of management failure. In one mine, he saw that all work had to be stopped because of an injury to a working horse. The mine manager was absent and the stable manager had no authority to obtain the replacement of the injured horse. In the case of the horse replacement, it was the inability of the company structure to deal with this technical problem that causes inefficiency. Fayol did identify that authority was required to overrun narrow conception of decision making that did not keep the final objective in mind. Fayol was able to overrun the absence of the stable manager in order to get things done. In this case, one sees that authority is neither authoritative nor working without the flexibility demanded by the condition of the situation (the production of coal in this case). In his work, General and Industrial Management, he reviewed all aspects of management involved in the running of a business. Concerning the authority, he came with a list of principles: Unity of command Hierarchical chain of command Separation of powers (authority, subordination, responsibility and control) Centralisation Order. But he did not concentrate only on authority since his interest was about the functioning of the industrial business in its entirety. Since most of the problems he encountered were not technical in the sense of related to engineering skill; but mostly managerial, he came to the conclusion that one needed a certain element of creativity in the managerial practices in order to accommodate industrial realities. For example, he gave the possibility of experienced workers to become supervisors of work groups. In developing working teams with the authority to act and make decisions in the mines, it improved both motivation and effectiveness. The objective was to make them responsible for quality and the timing of work. He observed that all employees are involved in the administration of the business to a greater or lesser degree. In his book General and Industrial Management, he draws a comprehensive perspective of all his experience. One may call this a general theory. But it is clear that in Fayols words, it is an attempt to generalise the sum of experiences he has observed in managing Comambault in order to deliver a compendium of his ideas that could transcend industry and organisational types. One sees that in keeping the area of management large (from the decision making, the work relationship as well as the selection of human resources) Fayol identified the following principles of management (see text 1 of the reading list): Division of work specialisation of labour Authority the right to direct the work of others but requiring commensurate responsibility for actions and performance Discipline obedience and respect for the organisation and fellow workers Unity of command one superior rather than many in contrast to F W Taylor Unity of direction one agreed plan of action leading to focus and coordination of effort Subordination of individual interest to the general interest Remuneration to incentivise and make employees more valuable Centralisation to achieve the right proportion of centralised and decentralised decision making to optimize personnel Scalar chain the chain of authority from top to bottom, allowing also for lateral communication and decision making (the gang plank) Order people and resources in their appropriate place Equity equitable employee relations based on respect and kindliness Stability of tenure of personnel to assist in resources planning Initiative encouraging energy and zeal throughout the organisation Esprit de Corps building a sense of belonging and team work
Monday, August 19, 2019
Parallels between God and AI in Neuromancer The world of "meat" provides the base for much of what happens throughout William Gibson's novel Neuromancer. The lives of characters are shaped by their flesh and blood experiences. The realm of artificial intelligence (AI) is the base for all of the events that are central to the life of a character. All events and lives are under control of the AI, and all things serve the AI's purpose. The matrix serves to mash the two realms together, in times and places where AI cannot physically control the meat. The relationship between these realms is a direct parallel to God's relationship with man. It is hard to disseminate exactly what Gibson wanted to portray in Neuromancer without obscuring it with doctrinal differences. However, it can safely be assumed that the AI is intended to "be God." This is no laughable assertion, since the behavior of the AI character, Wintermute, certainly acts in a god-like manner. When Case is first contacted by Wintermute, it is a very strange, supernatural encounter. Imagine how Case must have felt, to have been "chased" by ringing telephones (p.98), when behind each ring he knows that a very powerful force is waiting to impart information to him that will change his life. According to Christian tradition, God constantly tries to open a line of communication with humans, but an earthly obstacle prevents humans from "picking up the phone" and answering God's call. It could be said that it is fear of the unknown and fear of the inevitable or obvious that causes this separation, which would fall perfectly in place with Case's reasons for avoiding Wintermute. It could be said that Case's experience in the world of meat has caused him to be cr... ...'s mission. Case is contacted by the AI and told of his success. He is later informed that the toxin sacs imbedded in his body have been treated. What is seen here is the gift of a second life to Case by the AI. This second life is akin to what Christians expect in the afterlife- salvation from all evils such as drugs, lives lived in sin, and unrest in conscience. It is interesting to note, also, that Case uses his brain extensively, whether he is tickling receptors with amphetamines, searching for rhyme and reason in all that he knows about Wintermute, or sprawling his neurons out in the matrix. The apparent "boss" AI is named Neuromancer, and his name is a description of his character- one who deals with things of the mind. The AI gods, then, are interested in thoughts, beliefs, and decisions leading up to the earthly enactment of their will. Just like God.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Prosperity, job security, hard work and family union are some of the concepts that involves the American Dream, generally speaking. Some people think this dream is something automatically granted; or in contrast, as in the story Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ written by Arthur Miller, as something that has to be achieved in order to be successful in life. The play takes issues with those in America who place to much stress on material gain, instead of more admirable values. American society is exemplified with MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s work and demonstrates how a dream could turn into a nightmare. Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ , is a play that portrays the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the psychological problems that brings the collapse of the American Dream for this in a lower-middle family in an economical depression. The reader can see how Arthur Miller was inspired to write this play because of his family background using a biographical approach. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s father Ã¢â¬Å"was a prosperous businessman until the Crash of 1929, after the family suffered through the DepressionÃ¢â¬ (Rollyson) which had a significant influence on his life and works. As we see in the play, Willy Loman in a sense has two different realities. There is a Willy Loman -- Ã¢â¬Å"the financially burdened and emotionally exhausted main character (Thompson) -- is broken, an exhausted man in his sixties, near the end of his life. And there is the more confident, vigorous Willy Loman of some fifteen years before, who appears in flashbacks in the story. If we make a parallel between the story and the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life, these two realities are the before and after of the great depression that MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s father suffered through when Miller was a child. His life served as the inspiration to create the characters of the story: Ã¢â¬Å"Miller drove trucks, unloaded cargoes, waited on tables, and worked as a clerk in a warehouse.Ã¢â¬ (Rollyson) Moreover, the psychological view of Willy Loman is shown as a person who works as a traveling salesman and decides to commit suicide because the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ overwhelms him. As Charley says in the story: Ã¢â¬Å"the only thing you got in this world is what you can sellÃ¢â¬ . He is a normal person Ã¢â¬Å"who embodies traditional American values of success.Ã¢â¬ (Hansberry) In fact, Willy Loman wants to a great extent believe that he is one of the finest salesmen, a winner in life and a great father. For Mr. Loman, the accomplish... ...y he is so obsessed with trying to attain it. He is the product of his own illusions and of a society that believe that with hard work everything is possible. The reader can understand that WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s skewed perspective of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ is due to his distortion of his life and the dream that he thinks he lives in everyday. In conclusion, the play represents the collapse of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ for a typical lower-middle class family in Brooklyn during an economic depression. The story represents Ã¢â¬Å"the brutality of the system toward manÃ¢â¬ (Kroll). Willy, with his illusions of living the present with the mementos of the past represents the unwanted desire to accept reality. Therefore, he decides to commit suicide in a coward way and leave the insurance money to the family. Moreover, his wife sees the whole process of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s death without interference in order to not hurt his pride. His sons, Biff and Happy, always had a constant pressure to achieve luxuries and comforts of the American Dream and due to that pressure they were unable to attain it. Willy dies believing in a dream that his family did not believe because they were seeing reality a little bite closer than him.