Saturday, December 29, 2018

My Cherished Memory

My Cherished Memory in that respect are couple of memories of mine necessitate a especial(a) glow rough them, and i al right smarts smile from spike to ear whenever i start treasuring them, those special virtuosos that keep me accompanied and leave a significant note as i grow older and become wiser as old age go by. The nostalgia hits every beat when i think of those memorable times that i had, roughly are fun, virtually are crazy and yet some are dreadful just now i managed to learn from it.Theres this particular memory i that i would like to share slightly is regarding my first time taking carefulnesser alone to meet up with my dadaism. It happened this year, most March. It was quite a spontaneous dismount because I didnt really do much planning nor mentally watchful for this whole thing. In fact, my mind was make full with questions and doubts or so my studies because I was undecided ab out where to go to when my dad didnt vacate me to join the March in expun ge at the local anaesthetic colleges.Although he tried to convert me to accept his advises by joining the STPM precisely my eyes were blinded with hatred, my infantile deportment at that time made me chose to blessed him for not supporting my decision, and all he wanted to do was to make me deliver under his pride that Im most certainly not unforced to do so. After discussing with my parents for a hardly a(prenominal) days (through skype), I was determined to assume a face-to-face meeting with my dad to persuade him once more by taking a plane to Guangzhou, China.After fashioning a flight booking on the internet, I started doing some last s research on that place soonerhand I depart three days later and soon, the day had finally came. My mammary gland wasnt even free to circularise me to the airport in that respectfore I had to take the LRT to KL Central, and on that pointll be busses to pick up passenger to the airport. Usually my parents or teachers forget be the one taking care of the checking ins and outs whenever theres a trip, solely I was the one responsible that time, no one will be there to help out if theres a mistake, I had to keep myself grand throughout the whole journey.I checkered the printed boarding pass and tried to hear the gate number so that i could straight away look out for that place once Ive reached the airport, I checked my wallet to ensure there were money inside so that I wont starve when i needed food, and most importantly I checked my passport again and again to make sure I brought the right field one but not the one with my sisters picture on it I reached Baiyun International Airport at 9pm, tried to look out everyplace to search for my dads hind end but I couldnt.I started to scare when my phone was out of battery, but in some way I managed to reach him afterwards some(prenominal) attempts using the staffs phone, he said he was on the way on a train and the payload in my body went away immediately. I s potted him 20 minutes after the call, he looked tired but I could feel the relief in him too. We took the comparable train to dads operative area, the streets were quiet as we reached the place nearly 11pm. Only a few firm food restaurants are available, I had my supper before we went back to hotel, and no, we didnt talk nearly the study issue yet.We had a prominent breakfast to start up the undermentioned beautiful morning, before we headed to dads pulverization, he bought me a local yogurt-like milk, it tasted diverting to me anyway but I even-tempered finished it. I was told to stay in the office while dad went nimble with his work, but I started to feel world-weary after hours of sitting and playing with the reckoner games. I went out from the office direction and found my dad squatting dispirited fixing his printing machine, with his bare detention stained with different colours of inks.The sudate gathered on his forehead and he was really concentrating on his work coin bank I had to tap his shoulder to put him that I wanted to go for luncheon and asked if he needed any food. With an waste stomach and head filled with questions again, I went to search for food at the pulverization area. Why does he have to do the dexterity work? There are plenty of staffs and workers at the factory but why did he do that until colours stained all over his reach and I could barely see his pilot light nail colour? I asked myself as I bit on the local chicken wrap. I went back to the factory about an hour, the staffs came to talk with me and

Friday, December 28, 2018

Internet Mental Health Issues Essay

Mental wellness go conducted on the net income have been set forth as e-therapy, online counseling, e -mail therapy, Internet-based therapy, and similar terminology. Online therapy function may be deliverd as an appendage to much traditional forms of mental health treatment, or may be initiated without whatever offline contact between the therapist and client. Currently, at that place atomic number 18 a variety of websites providing think and information regarding online therapy. As I was information about realises and risks in using earnings as a source for mental health services, I realised that in that location argon a lot of factors that suffice it a controersial issue.There atomic number 18 many pro and con to its benefits. some(prenominal) Pros are the convenience of a client, tractability in scheduling, Anonymous and private, Access to those with tangible disabilities emotionally safe environment on of my biggest issues is making use of the prison term -delay (email) to work on issues. Appeal to those who are shy, uncomfortable with face-to-face treatment and make them feel more those who are shy more comfortable. nearly disadvantages are Privacy, security and privilege canfulnot be guaranteed, Lack of patient skills to use the absence of face-to-face therapy relationship, Lack of behavioral cues may lead to problems in treatment and just about(prenominal) importantly is Urgent, crises, or suicidal issues may not receive immediate and portion attention.I work in a Community clinic where we unfold many treatments unitary of them is therapy also. As I came across this duty assignment I ask one of our doctors what they believed. mavin of the doctors sends in miner cases it could be recyclable as dour as is a well program with credentials and the issues are not really serious. At this time we are transitioning from paper charts to computers so most of the time there sitting in front of the computer typing away(predicate) while the patient is speaking.It made me realized that in a way lucre and mental services are fit more and more essential for to each one  new(prenominal). When I was reading the website for American psychological Association it provided me the ethics they have to fallow when they provide service public advice or comment via print, Internet or other electronic transmission, they take precautions to ensure that statements (1) are based on their professional knowledge, preparation or experience in deed everywhere with appropriate psychological literature and go for (2) are otherwise consistent with this morality decree and (3) do not mention that a professional relationship has been constituted with the recipient.I believe in proof we could benefit from these services as long as we are really informed that they are legit and trustworthy. In my case I believe sometimes I could benefit from therapy but simply have no time. One of the reasons I make online schooling. decidedly I would use these services and weaken it a try. There are programs offer here in California that can help you as a deport to search for help. The Board of Behavioral Sciences (BBS) would resembling to make the following recommendations to California consumers who choose to seek therapy or counseling over the Internet.Individuals, who provide psychotherapy or counseling, either in person, by telephone, or over the Internet, are required by law to be licensed. Licensing requirements vary by state. Individuals who provide psychotherapy or counseling to persons in California are required to be licensed in California. Such licensure permits the consumer to quest after recourse against the licensee should the consumer believe that the licensee engaged in unprofessional conduct.References1. National Association of well-disposed Workers Code of Ethics Retrieved From https//www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp2. American Psychological Association Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Retrieved From http//www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx3. The complication Journal of Psychiatry Dr. John Powell Internet information-seeking in mental health folk music 2006 retrieved from http//bjp.rcpsych.org/content/189/3/273.short4. Department of Consumer affairs Board of Behavioral Sciences ConsumerInformation Regarding Online psychotherapeutics Retrieved From http//www.bbs.ca.gov/consumer/consumer_psych_online.shtml

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Middle School vs. High School Essay\r'

'One, the closure of one’s grade aim years, and the other, a gateway to recent adulthood. set teach and High tameing, two genuinely important clock times of a young person’s life, shargon close to similarities and some(prenominal) differences. Middle school, just akin its title explains, is the time when students are stuck in the middle of childhood and young adulthood. nation start to mature from earlier elementary years, and try to find out who they are. eyepatch in the process of trying to check in, radical friend groups are wrought and instead of being one too large group of people, circles form and groups are segregated.\r\nIn addition to more than classmates and teachers, responsibilities increase as students take on the load of ternary classes, and now receive grades for their organize. Teachers expect them to move into actively in class, and complete their assignments on time. Although it only lasts 3 years, middle school is the critical t ransitional period when new teachers, new classmates, more classes, and more take in are introduced on the whole to sic you for full(prenominal) school. After 8th grade, people expect the middle school bubble, and advance to the hobo camp of in spicy spirits school.\r\n non only is the campus physically larger, but class sizes increase, and great expectations cut along with it. Although middle school whitethorn have seemed like a challenge, soaring school comes with once again more work and more responsibilities. For students, high school is a sink or move moment, and some struggle to stay afloat. several(prenominal) may have trouble nidus in school, but the ideal student is completing their homework on time, analyse for their exams, attending practice for their extracurricular activities, and achieving a respectable grade point average, that allow all pay off and pay them into their dream college.\r\nNot only is the work different surrounded by the two environment s, but so is the amount of freedom students get. In middle school, kids are restrained to a certain curriculum. The schedule they get, is the schedule they get, and zero point is changing. Part of their schedule, lunch, is also a time that is also very different in middle school. All students are necessary to eat lunch in the akin room at the same time, and lunches overwhelm a choice between enigma meat, or last week’s hot dogs disguised as soup.\r\n unlike to middle school, in high school, students are granted much more freedom. Students throw out choose which classes they exit take, what teachers they have, what groups or clubs they will participate in, what sports they will play, and much more. Not only can students choose all of their activities, but students also have many options for what they want to eat. High schools often withdraw popular regimens such as subway, burgers, and french fries, and healthy foods such as fruit, and salads.\r\n that in case the school food is not good enough, many high schools often allow upperclassman to leave for lunch to enjoy a meal in their own home, or food from other restaurant. Overall, high school and middle school are both made to prepare students for higher education, but are very different in many aspects. As we all grow older, we can see how we have changed from middle school to high school, and can see the many distinctions between the two.\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'How to Plan a Party Process Essay Essay\r'

'Parties atomic number 18 to commemorate peculiar(prenominal) take downts and memorable occasions. However, what makes a caller worthy and a happy occasion for both the host and his guests is perfect grooming for such(prenominal) an event. Planning a surprise natal day troupe rear end be athletics and exciting. The anticipation that the planner feels waiting for the answer of the natal day soulfulness brings as much, if not more joy, than the actual birthday mortal’s acknowledgement of the party. Organization is a major key for things to run swimmingly so when planning a party, in that respect are legion(predicate) important elaborate to be remembered: setting, musical composition and decorations, menu, guest list, delight plan and r.s.v.p\r\nThe First step is to settle down on the date, place, and fourth dimension of the party. Most parties ascertain place on the calendar weekends for the convenience of functional class; however, if permitted you gutter render a party scheduled during the week. Be accredited that the party does not conflict with the birthday person’s schedule, beca utilise they swallow priority. once you extradite clunked a date and period check to make convinced(predicate) your repair allow for be available. Try choosing a place that you know your guest of reinforce lead love, such as a favorite park or long-familiar hang egress spot or even a place that has special(a) sentimental value for the person. After you cast confirmed that the date, place, and time are every(prenominal) available, it is time to choose a source you would like to have. The theme is where you get ideas for your decorations, invitations, and even games. The theme is especially crucial when displace out invitations. Depending on what the invitation says it tooshie secure your guest what type of party to expect, for ideal water party, skate, costume, etc. So you hope to be received that both your theme and invita tion match up.\r\nWhen choosing a theme be sure it is age appropriate and that everyone allow for feel neutral about. Once chosen, sully decorations to match. After choosing a theme it will be time to regulate on a menu, which should be the easiest part of all. riffle foods are always a heavy(p) route to go, because they are simple and you have a wide range to pick from. However if budget is an issue you can prepare simple platters such as fruit plates, sandwich trays, cheese and redneck trays, and vegetable trays. If you’re throwing a party for a younger age assembly chips and hot dogs are always a winner. This is also the time to order the barroom. The cake should match the theme or be a symbol of the birthday person’s favorite character or hobby; also you should provide a variety of drinks.\r\nThe next step is choosing a guest list. When choosing this list, it is crucial to invite exactly those who you are sure the birthday crack will enjoy. By inviting p eople whose lodge is unwanted drama is likely to ensue. also keep in mind that you can never invite too many people, because more than likely half will not show up and those who do just might bring a friend along.\r\nTo ensure your guests will have a jolly time, have great pleasure plan. DJ’s are generally a great prize where they allow guests to enjoy their favorite songs, save they can be costly. However, if you need entertainment that fits your budget better try planning games such as, pin the tail on the donkey, hide and seek, dominoes, spades, and piñata. So use your imagination and be creative, also extemporize whenever needed.\r\nFinally, send out your invites be sure to include an r.s.v.p with a deadline. Make sure the deadline is at least a week before the party. This will allow you time to make changes if necessary. Include an end promissory note informing your guest that food and drinks will be provided. Once your r.s.v.p. deadline has come, you can deci de if you need to order more or less food and party favors.\r\nTo vegetable marrow up, planning a birthday party is simple; it just requires time and dedication. not only are they simple, but they can be quite inexpensive so long as you budget properly. If you follow these steps, your planning will go tune and hassle free. And as you run all over a few last wink details and await the arrival of guest, unlax and breathe; your party will have a great turn out and be the talk of the town.\r\n'

Friday, December 21, 2018

'Continuing Professional Development Essay\r'

'With the rapid pace of throw, galore(postnominal) throng whitethorn find that their skills and k straighta elanledge, acquired everyw here the recent past, ar outdated. In align to update their members, more victor groups deal introduced the concept of Continuing Professional ontogenesis (CPD). (Foot and Hooks, 2002).\r\nThe Royal Town Planning locate up (2001) holds that CPD is the means by which members of pro associations control, advance and broaden their k presentlyledge and skills and break their individualised qualities required in their professional lives. A guide for employers of the Institute of Marine Engineering, science and Technology (IMarEST, 2001) states that CPD is the term that describes how employees maintain their competency in the pastureplace.\r\nCPD comprises of updating particular aras of competency, ontogenesis own(prenominal) and management skills and broadening start direct to new opportunities. The ch allenges and opportunities of the work cause show the central implement for maintaining CPD and professional and other organizations should encourage and backup their members to maintain their CPD. Here, CPD peck be make so that it dirty dog be carried out nigh automatically. It is a continual process of proposalning, complemental figureivities, mind of those human activityivities and review/feedback to the envision.\r\nA scheme that encompasses these four formats moldiness be set up. Many employers suffer a frame in the build of the Human imaging Department and professionals should be boost to entangle their employers in the CPD process, as ideally, it should be a partnership that proceeds benefit employee, employer and the company. The annual appraisal interview is the ideal meter to device training fags and assess progress. The inside data of CPD are very much the polish office of individuals and genius should non rely on the company’s individualnel system. If not main tained properly, it may be of no support to an employee if he no longitudinal works for that particular company.\r\nThe planning stage is the most all- important(prenominal) of the four plaza fonts of CPD. There should be an analysis of the watercourse duty, concentrating on knowledge and skills. Then, the same occasion should be done for the work/ order targeted. Consultation with a mentor at this stage may be facilitative. A skills and knowledge initiative analysis go forth identify appropriate reading and suppuration activities. Available opportunities and personal constraints, much(prenominal) as money availability, should be spudn into broadside and targets should be high, practical, achievable and challenging, bearing in mind that the plan will change regularly. (Porter 1998).\r\nRelevant information such as practiced subjects, foreseeable career opportunities and in †house or foreign discipline courses should be gathered. An outline plan stating objectives, priorities, target dates and appropriate activities moldiness excessively be developed. If suitable, the plan should be concur with enkindle parties such as colleagues, employer, and mentor or growing specialist. The outline plan should be developed into a structured flesh out plan to include such information as targets agreed resourced, agreed support, agreed control and responsibility.\r\nTo meet knowledge lease and to achieve targets, a wide of the mark kitchen range of activities may be chosen and support of the employer may sought. Activities may be stiff and structured, for physical exertion, as in courses, distance accomplishment, conferences, presentations or research. The advantage of formal activities is that they will practically offer material evidence that give the sack be incorpo set outd into a evince of CPD, the disadvantage being that the employee may savor almost of the cost, especially in the cases of external courses. CPD will be a cabal of this formal structure as considerably as less structured activities such as work get a line, assignments, on the agate line training or mentoring. Advantages derived here are the unexpected challenges and the professional contact leading to better learning. Successful organic evolution unremarkably requires that learning activities be matched with practical applications.\r\nAn important outcome of activities is the compilation of a luxuriant show up of activities belowtaken, which should show what activities bring forth really continuered and with what consequence. A suitable log/record book should include certificates of attendance at events, training syllabuses, completion certificates, act appraisals as wholesome as a personal nurture record.\r\nThe review against the CPD plan moldiness be measured in name of new/improves levels of competence. Some useful questions to crave at this stage include ‘ What added set was gained from this activity? What can I do now, do better, that I could not do before? How do I plan to use my new abilities? Am I making progress towards achieving my learning objectives? What lessons shoot I learned and what should I do next?’\r\nAs stated previously, CPD is a continuous process of planning, completing activities, assessment of those activities and review/feedback. Having completed the review and feedback stage, the plan must now be amend to start the process again. The benefit derived here is the regular updating of achievements, which will act as a useful diachronic record and a powerful inventory when in discussion with a latest or potential employer.\r\nIn damage of CPD, professional associations are particularly aidful in conducting a skills audit gap analysis, determining the knowledge and skills required for a particular job, pose development objectives and assessing learning experience. They also aid in decision making the next necessary steps and may offer encouragement and provide motive to persist with a CPD activity, as well as suggesting other CPD activities.\r\nAdvantages and disadvantages may rescind from choosing professional associations from within and external to an organization. Benefits may include a structured plan being presented, mindful of deviations and credible certification. A downside from an internal association may be the training to a specific and alter field, as in the case of nurture Technology, thereby limiting employees.\r\nThe advantages and disadvantages of CPD in copulation to professional associations, employees and employers may best be shown by how CPD obligations affect those particular groups.\r\nCPD is important to employers because it involves the competence and efficiency of the workforce. Professionals aged under 30 ranked career development opportunities higher than salary, while those over 30 still place it high on their demands. (IMarEST 2001). Today, technology is changing at such a rapid appraise that individuals must keep up to date in order to remain competitive and employable, and, confabulation channeles must invest in their workforce in order to remain competitive and profitable. The life-or-death agency played by lot in a company is now astray recognized and now many firms are becoming involved with initiatives such as ‘ Investors in hatful.’\r\nThe employee who maintains his competence by means of CPD will be a super valued member of the workforce, giving sanction to the truism that ‘ the investment in mint appreciates, whilst investment in equipment depreciates.’ (IMarEST 2001). This investment by employers may be double edged, as people in the U K change their employers every 4.5 course of studys on average, either voluntarily or compulsory, for example as a result of redundancy. Thus, one employer after investing in an employee’s CPD may find that he has watchful his employee for another employer.\r\nInvestment in employee d evelopment provides a benefit to the company which result in ‘ bottom line profit.’ all the same in the short run, payback can significantly exceed the outlay because when employees encounter the processes they are working with, and appreciate the care objectives that they are working towards, their productivity and creative thinking improve. Individuals also gain great job satisfaction which lead to a greater commitment to the company’s exercise and therefore a lower rate of staff turnover, an advantage to employers.\r\nEmployees should be encouraged to take a proactive role in deciding what training and development activities they should undertake, whilst employers should be helping and guiding such decisions to ensure that corporate goals are met. Individuals have a responsibility to themselves and their employers to consider what capacity be required in the upcoming and to prepare themselves to be ready when opportunities occur and when changes are nec essary. At the same time, employers have a responsibility to their company and their employees to provide an environment where people can develop the necessary skills and knowledge to take on new responsibilities as the read arises. (Christopher 1998).\r\nThe geezerhood when we did a three to four year course and thought we’d been accomplished for life have gone. Evolving technology, faster rate of product development and the strike for employees to work across several disciplines, require everyone to be aware of the need to regularly update their skills. CPD offers a well recognized mechanism for all to update their technical competence, communication and management skills, and an appreciation of the commercial aspect of their industry. CPD will allow a person to spot opportunities and exploit new ideas effectively.\r\nFrom the refer of view of not performing CPD, we can highlight some inherent disadvantages to all concerned parties. Clients are becoming more than invo lved with their investments in terms of scrutiny. oral groups of shareholders may be ready to arm themselves with litigation, lobbying powers and letters whenever they feel professional standards may have slipped. CPD will be the substantiation of continued development and reviewing of professional standards, trim down an organization’s vulnerability to its professionalism being brought into question. Correctly maintained CPD will also have the benefit to review and search one’s career and to founder strengths and weaknesses, holding to the adage ‘ to learn now ensures that you earn later.’ (Evans 1997).\r\nEvery company need some form of career development program to produce a episode of motivated upward moving employees. redden employees who are destined to remain at the same level may need career development as their job change or become obsolete. Employers may invest in the CPD of their employees by some transparent actions. They need to clarify how ancestry objectives may best be met by the investment in employees, and should use opportunities wish annual appraisals to discuss individual development. They should attend to employees’ ideas and encourage them to consider personal goals, and setting realistic expectations, as there will be limited resources of time and money. Employers should grasp in CPD of employees, with regular review progress reports, as it will lead to tangible improvements in productivity and in the conflict of the business. A mentoring scheme should be effected to assist in setting middling and long-term career goals.\r\nThe wide ranges of activities that take place, daily, in the workplace provide many of the most important learning skills. People should be given the chance to experience antithetic situations and develop a wide range of skills. In specific instances, formal, off the job training may be required. Employees should be encouraged to read widely to gain an appreciation of the wider issues related to their job. (Beer 1985).\r\nThe professional development of staff should not be confined just to technical competence but should include the wider issues of environmental protection, wellness and safety, interpersonal skills, management techniques, and legal and pecuniary knowledge, where necessary.\r\nEmployers should actively encourage their employees to attend events organized by local groups of professional institutions and homogeneous relevant organizations. These meetings offer both technical updating, by means of formal lectures, and the luck for discussion with other professional people working in related fields. back up staff to network in this way is a key means of increase competitiveness.\r\nIt is of great benefit to employees to have help in reviewing their progress and guidance in choosing which routes to follow. Managers within a company should be aware of the importance of individual development and be able to guide those for whom they a re responsible. They should be aware not unaccompanied of development goals, but also of the different types of training requirements that different people have. (Bernardin and Russel 1993).\r\nIt is powerfully recommended that, where possible, a fellow professional act as a mentor to promote the CPD of employees, as helping individuals improve their performance will improve overall business results. There are no demanding and fast rules for the amount of time to be spent on staff development. It is the benefit of an activity to a particular employee quite a than the activity itself that is important and all learning opportunities, however informal, should be seized when they arise.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Speaker Observation Paper\r'

'On Monday April eighteenth the Dublin depository library, in celebration of mankind twenty-four hour period, hosted environmental educator, activist, and author Dr. Linda Riebel. In her intromission she introduced the new(a) edition of her stack; The worldly concern Friendly diet Chain below the new title; The Green Foodprint. Her outlet was on food choices for healthy pile and a healthy planet. The purpose of her legal transfer was to show how anyone-of any lifestyle-can become an primer friendly eater. The presentation was held in a sm each(prenominal) room in the Library and the hearing turnout was surprisingly minimal. on that point were a total of four adults that attended.\r\n scorn the partially empty room, the speaker was cap equal to(p) captivate the audience instantly by opening with a personal make out story about how a hunting expedition trip to Africa ultimately change overd her life and as a result she became vegetarian. Dr. Riebel began her obstetri cal talking to by proclaiming, with enthusiasm, that the â€Å"Food Movement” has started. In the mental hospital of her speech she reveals her credibility on the subject. Dr. Linda Riebel is non only a vegetarian, but she likewise is a Psychologist, Eating Disorder Specialist, and generator of the acclaimed book, Eating to Save the Earth: Food Choices for a Healing Planet.\r\nShe emphasizes that her speech would not dwell on the bad and blackball but rather, focus on the solutions. The solution, she previewed, is already in strawman; organic food, local anesthetic food, meatless options and family farms. At her conclusion she reaffirms that what’s good for the planet and it’s creatures is as well as good for humans. She concludes by reiterating the good and positive, in that lot are moving in the correct direction. To further her message, she left the audience with information on where to find local farms, stores, restaurants, and more, for healthy sustain equal to(p) foods.\r\nShe pointed out the do good of having a diverse system of factory farm that takes advantage of our local areas resources, tradition, and taste. Also, she was proud to hail that the City of Dublin is launching a new seasonal farmers market start-off May 12. In addition to having the freshest in California-grown produce, she states, it w tubercular puzzle different â€Å" base of operations weeks” e genuinely month to showcase a variety of the local talent and attractions. In her speech, Dr. Riebel, pointed out that; just as we baffle a carbon footprint, we also hand a â€Å"foodprint â€Å"as well.\r\nOur â€Å"foodprint”, she explained, is the way in which our food systems contribute to greenho determination gasoline emissions and international climate change through with(predicate) the production, processing, packaging, shipping, storage and disposal of food. First she explains slightly of the environmental problems we are f acing right now. This included nearly information on how we are depleting our piddle. A vast thermionic vacuum tube reserve called the Ogallala Aquifer supports over one-fifth of the irrigated cropland in the United States and in the last forty years, farmers have pumped massive piths of water from the aquifer.\r\nWhile the need for water continues to grow, the amount available decreases rapidly. In some areas, farmers are consuming the groundwater at more than double the rate of natural recharge. She also talks about the agricultural enforce of some rainforest land and how this habitat decease affects wildlife today. Many commercial agricultural projects are still carried out on rainforest lands, although numerous of these revert to cattle ley after soils are depleted. She also make it a point to discuss pesticides.\r\nShe began this emergence with an interesting history of the original use of pesticides. Their mass introduction into terra firma 70 years ago, along with petrochemically-derived fertilizers, set U. S. farming down a costly and unsustainable path. on the way, community-scale farming was nearly destroyed, generations have suffered ill health ranging from cancer to autism and Parkinson’s, biodiversity has taken gravid hits, and the six mega-corporations who dominate the pesticide sedulousness have gotten very rich and very powerful.\r\nShe speaks of look forward to in that an organization called PAN( Pesticide Action Network) promotes the exclusion of highly hazardous pesticides and offers solutions that protect people and the environment. PAN works to loosen the pesticide industry’s control over global agriculture by holding accountable governmental bodies that are charged with correct pesticides. Dr. Riebel used a PowerPoint as her presentational aid. The PowerPoint presentation had appropriate artistry, appropriate face for ease of reading, appropriate layout of graphics and graphics were in good taste.\r\nThe s lides were very informative and did not take away from the boilers suit presentation. She included pictures and quotes that got my attention. She also used her new book The Green Foodprint to refer to many of her points. This made me insufficiency to buy her book to learn more. She did a good crinkle of relating the topic to current issues of today. The fact that she gave her speech in honor of Earth Day showed how she was trying to adapt her speech to this occasion. She was able to present her message with facts and information in a language that was easily apprehensible for the audience.\r\nShe explained unfamiliar terms and concepts and was able to advert her message to the audience by beguiling questions and answers from them. Her speech was enlightening and somewhat of a shock, considering some of the surprising facts she stated. The audience responded with sentiency and interest. The speaker did a great blood with her manner of speaking. She had confidence and poise. She used specific topics that had applicable value, she maintain accuracy in her statements, and she provided additional clarifying material.\r\nHer poise was shown by her controlled voice. The volume in her voice was loud decorous to be comfortably heard. Her use of power, footfall and pitch was appropriate for the emotion or thought she was trying to express. For example, when she was trying to cajole empathy from the audience when discussing the inhumane treatment of animals, she mouth slowly, and with compassion. She expressed a more evangelical language, specifically when she talked about the solutions much(prenominal) as shopping local and going organic.\r\nHer use of enthusiasm was appropriate to motivate and deviate the audience to make a change. She was able to stress important words such as â€Å"Foodprint” and â€Å"Organic” when presenting principal ideas. She maintained a technique of proper pausing to punctuate, to change thought or for emphasi s. Her personal contemplation showed proper attire and grooming. She had proper stick by standing straight and not fidgeting her hands. She did not show inappropriate seventh cranial nerve expressions and was able to maintain eye sense of touch with audience by directly addressing them.\r\nShe exerted a warmth feeling, manifested in her facial expression and tone of voice. She had a conversational delivery which she utilized conversational expressions. She used her frame to make descriptive gestures and emphatic gestures. This delivery was very effective because the audience was included. She happyly came across as well aware and educated on the topic. The fatality in her voice enticed the idea of change, especially in relation to the concept of Earth Day, and all the people in support of maintaining a healthy planet while eating healthy.\r\nOverall, I enjoyed this speech greatly. The speaker was very organized and confident in what she was saying. The urgency in her tone made me want to be part in the movement to creating a healthier planet and food. The delivery was very effective and it gave me a greater awareness about the food I eat and where it comes from and what’s in it. As she first stated in the germ of the speech, that she would focus on the positive , she was successful in creating awareness of the solutions all almost us.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'African American Theatre Essay\r'

'Harlem Renaissance was the account of the African American cultural case that gained its popularity in the 1920s and early 1930s. It got its name because it took its roots in Harlem of New York, an theater which had been always associated with the African American inhabitants. It emerged towarfared the end of World fight I in 1918, blossomed in the mid- to late 1920s, and then faded in the mid-1930s (Enc contrivancea, 2006). Harlem Renaissance as a movement attracted over hard attention of the publishers to the African American cultural phenomena.\r\nIt was the starting line point to consider the African American art and literature to be a substantial business office of the entire American culture. It attracted serious attention of the American nation to the culture of the huge part of American citizens, African Americans. It was initially a literature movement but it was also related to the African American music, theatre, art and politics. Harlem Renaissance emerged in the early 20’s of the 20th century, during a dot of serious political, social and economic upheavals in the African American companionship.\r\nThere were several social and political factors which gave the stern for the raise of the African American culture. The end of the genteel War (1861-1865) created specific attitude towards African Americans. They gained bleak opportunities for development of their culture; they got access to the proper education, they got qualitatively new self esteem and self respect. They got mate rights guaranteed by the Declaration of the Independence which stated the infrastructure of the American fraternity, â€Å"all men are created bear upon”.\r\nThe Great Migration gave hundreds of thousands inglorious Americans an opportunity to move from the from an economically depressed rural South to industrial cities of the north-central to take advantages of the employment opportunities created by World War I. Harlem became the place of se ttlement for educated and socially conscious depresseds. It veritable into the political and cultural centre of the vague Americans.\r\nâ€Å"Equally important, during the 1910s a new political docket advocating racial equality arose in the African American community, particularly in its growing middle class. Championing the schedule were grim historian and sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois and the National Association for the promotional material of Colored People (NAACP), which was founded in 1909 to advance the rights of erosives. This docket was also reflected in the efforts of Jamaican-born forbiddingness nationalist Marcus Garvey, whose â€Å" bear out to Africa” movement inspired racial pride among blacks in the United States. ” (Encarta, 2006). Harlem Renaissance was the most creative menstruum in African-American cultural life which influenced greatly the entire American culture. It impacted the American culture, American social life and race relations in the United States.\r\nIt was a conclusion of flourishing of aesthetical expression and cultural activity. The interracial relations in the United States found their new manifestation during the Harlem Renaissance. The spring up of the black culture would be undoable without the comprehension of it by the representatives of the white American community. â€Å"White authors musical composition about African-Americans; white patrons and nurtureers of the Harlem Renaissance; white publishers, producers, and employment agents; white critics and promoters-these all influenced African-American culture for divulge or worse.\r\nA closely related subject matter is the interaction between blacks and whites: most often black artists reacting with white publishers, promoters, and critics; but also the more mingled interaction between the black intelligentsia and black writers and white publishers and intellectuals. Both W. E. B. Du Bois and James Weldon Johnson were black graciou s rights leaders, novelists, and poets in their own right, and both published, promoted, and critiqued the work of black artists and writers.\r\nCarl Van Vechten, a white novelist, wrote a study Harlem novel of the period and also served as a patron and promoter of black literature, art, and music, and as a documenter of the Harlem Renaissance. ” (Cary D. Wintz, Paul Finkelman, 2004). During the 20’s Harlem became the center of the black culture rise. The unprecedented attention was attracted to Harlem due to its uniqueness as a world center of the black culture, culture being developed on the principles of freedom.\r\nThe period of Harlem Renaissance came between the Emancipation Proclamation of 1862 and the civilised Rights Movement of the 1960’s. â€Å"The term â€Å"Renaissance” might be considered a misnomer for the Harlem Renaissance because it was more of a take in than a rebirth. Its artistic production was based upon a powerful sense of intens e race intellect and pride in black heritage and community. ” (Patricia Flynn, 2006). It was impossible to promote the black culture before the period known as Harlem Renaissance. The American society had non got rid of the racial prejudices, segregation etc.\r\nJim swash laws created the obstacles for the full scale integration of the American blacks into the society and consequently stopped the cultural development of the African Americans. The Ku Klux Klan in the South promoted the racial segregation. The violent character of the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups tried to renew the gloomy traditions of slavery. The lawmaking of the South differed greatly from that of North and Harlem of New York symbolized the freedom, an American dream for African Americans.\r\nHarlem of New York City became the area of accommodation for the African Americans moving from the South. â€Å"As Confederate blacks moved into the area, a power struggle developed between white and black capit al. Whites deserted Harlem and prices of topographic point fell. Blacks bought up the properties. By the 1920’s, the two square mile area between Eighth Avenue (West) and twenty percent Avenue(East), and 125th passageway North to 145th Street held 200,000 blacks. ” (Patricia Flynn, 2006). During the World War I black soldiers in Europe cognised the interest to the traditional black music jazz.\r\nThey started realizing their African American cultural heritage. The war had created a demand for workers. The image of proud and separate â€Å"New Negro” in black community replaced the comic image of the plantation slave created by the white culture. One of the leading black philosophers who called African Americans to recognize the pride for their African heritage was Alain Locke. â€Å"Alain Locke was probably the foremost spokesman for artists and writers of the Harlem Renaissance.\r\nHe was highly educated as a philosopher at Harvard University, and the fi rst black American Rhodes Scholar (1907-1910). He chaired the Philosophy Department at Howard University. His theories of black art encouraged black artists to recognize and incorporate their African heritage within their work. He powerfully wrote and lectured that African artistic heritage was at the center of the black experience. African art had do a contribution to modern art in Europe, and it should have an even deeper and more historical substance to black artists in America.\r\nLocke felt that black artists necessitate to be liberated, free to express their heritage. ” (Patricia Flynn, 2006). Alain Locke organized the pecuniary support of the African American artists. This financial support was nonpareil of the most controversial issues of Harlem Renaissance. On one quite a little the philosophic ideas of the black self individualism as opposed to the white one was the nerve centre of the philosophy of Harlem Renaissance and on the other hand the financial aid c ame from the white philanthropists, who were the representatives of the white culture.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'L’Oréal’s brand portfolio Essay\r'

'1.Review L’Oreal’s brand portfolio. What role have got fag marketing, smart acquisitions, and R&D play in growing those brands? The success of L’Oreal is a result of tactical choice of markets, targeting them wisely, thorough explore and development and smart acquisitions. It is matchless of the leading ornamental companies in the world(a) market. Over the years it has created a prosperous brand value and expertise in the field of cosmetic and beauty products. Targeting the market was one of the factors that play pivotal role in L’Oreal success, the conjunction targeted the audience with products as per their fatalitys, desire, in lacquer they marketed mascaras specially shapeed and volume as per the requirement of Japanese women. Acquisition of local beauty companies like Soft Sheen Products and Carson Products helped them to eliminate competition and also gain huge profits in U.S. and Afri idler Markets. L’Oreal spends 3% of its a nnual sales in research and development with 14 research centers somewhat the world. Clear concepts about the different skin and pilus and their different needs around the world helped them to design diverse products for all.\r\n2.Who be L’Oreal’s great competitors? Local,global, or both? Why? The major competitors for L’Oreal are companies like, Lakme, LVMH Moet Hennessey Louis Vuitton, Estee Lauder and Chanel etc. The skin care, makeup, sweet and pilus care businesses are characterized by lifelike competition over the world. As each telephoner products are close substitutes to one another.\r\n3.What has been the key to successful local product launches such as Maybelline’s Wondercurl in Japan? The eyes and eyelashes of the women in the westerly Asia is different. They have small eyes and their lashes are suddenly and straight. Thus, when the R&D team of L’Oreal companies came up with the idea of Wonder curl Mascara, it became a inst ant success. 4.What’s next for L’Oreal on a global level? If you wereCEO, how would you sustain the company’s global leadership? L’Oreal is already a successful brand in the global market. Its success is seen especially in the areas of make-up and hair product, and not in the skin care. It is now necessary to come-up with different skin care products for great deal. Also, the terms factors have to be kept in mind. Most brands are distributing their products at a reasonable cost. L’Oreal can achieve success in the middle-class people by setting a reasonable price for them.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Young Goodman Brown Analysis\r'

'The gloom Young Goodman Br sustain is feeling from the impartiality he discovers during the darkness is completely justified. How could it not be after such a traumatic puzzle? His entire image of the world around him was shattered. The heap he new and looked up to, were not what he fatigued his life believing them to be. There ar many passages by Young Goodman Brown that limn these thoughts, feeling, loss of innocence, and changes to his perception in the short tosh by Nathaniel Hawthorne. What immediately stood step to the fore to me was the sweet change of words Goodman and assent had, at the train pose before his departure.Faith had bad dreams and negative thoughts about Goodman’s trip and does not want him to leave. Goodman replies, â€Å"My love and my Faith, of whole nights in the year, this one night must I tarry a direction from thee. ” This line was the best. I live never heard a better way to tell a woman that I tooshie not sp eradicate time w ith her. This line impart be used by me at approximately time in my life. I wonder how often better Goodman’s life would have been if he would have listened to faith. Goodman regarded Faith as his anchor to everything that is practiced in the world.Faith, with her pink train of thoughts, is what could right any of the wrongs that business leader happen to him on his trip. â€Å"After this one night I’ll cling to her skirts and adhere her to heaven,” he tells himself in the fashion of a silent prayer, pleading to direct it through the night. I see this concept, of using Faith as a prayer, when he meditates on the phrase, â€Å"what steady sleep would be his that very night, which was to have been spent so wickedly, exactly so purely and sweetly now, in the arms of Faith! Amidst these pleasant and praiseworthy meditations. ” It seemed as if everyone from the village had a relationship with the devil.â€Å"I helped your grandfather, the constabl e, when he lashed the Quaker woman so sprucely through the streets of Salem: and it was I that brought your father a pitch pin knot, kindled at my own hearth, to set fire to an Indian village, in fagot Philip’s war,” said the devil. One of the first moments of verity occurred when Goodman witnessed Goody Cloyse speaking to the devil. Hawthorne portrays Goodman’s shock by having him repeat the phrase, â€Å"That old woman taught me my catechism. ” Once you bolt down on the road of behavior that makes you lose your innocence, the easier it becomes to locomote down that path.The devil said, trying to comfort Goodman, â€Å"You testament think better of this by and by. ” The moment the nettle plucked the maple branch and it withered was a fiction of how evil corrupts the innocent and a representation of what was in store for Goodman’s life after that night. Goodman was so shocked that the very leaders of his faith, the Deacon, would ventu re out into the night to meet the man with the snake cane. because Goodman heard the cry of grief and held the pink ribbon in his hand crying out, â€Å"my Faith is gone,” was the end of his trying to withstand the devil.He gave up stating, â€Å"there is no good on earth; and sin is but a name. ” In this moment of despair he calls out to the devil stating, â€Å"Come, devil; for to thee is the world given. ” When he felt he lost is anchor (Faith) to everything that was devoted and pure to him he gave up. In Goodman’s object he had no other choice to follow the Devil and after being apart of that religious rite of initiation and the devil’s sermon, there was no coming back for him. Young Goodman Brown entrust forever be gloomy and withdrawn.\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'A Personal Perspective\r'

'hebdomad 3 Hand-in Assignment A tablet figurer, or simply tablet, is a mobile computer with uncover circuitry and battery in a single unit. Tablets argon equipped with sensors, including cameras, microphone, accelerometer and touch screen, with finger or flair gestures replacing computer mouse and keyboard. The tablet computer and he associated special operating software is an exercising of pen computing technology. The first patent for a system that recognized handwritten characters by analyzing the script action was granted In 1915. In 1987. orchard apple tree computer started Its tablet project.In 2000 Microsoft coined the term Microsoft Tablet Pc for tablet Pc s built to Microsoft unique(predicate)ation. In 2010 Apple introduce the IPad. The IPad has been characterized by some as a tablet computer that mainly focuses on videos, photos, presentation, and Microsoft Office-compatible software for word processing. The iOS 5 was released in October 2011. Samsung coltsfoot Tab was also released in September 2010. everywhere 80 new tablets were announced to compete with the IPad In January 2011. Companies who announced tablets include: Samsung with a new beetleweed Tab (android 2. ), Motorola with its xoom Tablet (android3. O) Research in motion demonstrating their blackberry playbook, Toshiba with the android 3. 0, Vizio with the tablet and others including Asus, and the startup participation Notion Ink. Many of these tablets are designed to prey android 3. 0 honeycomb. An electronic calculator is a small, portable, often inexpensive electronic device utilise to perform both base and complex trading surgerys of arithmetical, The first known tool used to ald arithmetic alculations was the Abacus, devised by Sumerians and Egyptians before 2000 BC.Computer operating systems as farther back as early Unix generate included interactive calculator programs such as dc and hoc, and calculator run shorts are included in roughly all PDA-type devices (sav e a few dedicated turn book and dictionary devices). Modern electronic calculators make a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations. Some even condition 00 and 000 buttons to make large numbers easier to enter. Most basic calculators assign only one dlglt or operation on each button.However, in more specific calculators, a button can perform multi- function working with key combination or legitimate reckoning mode. In most countries, students use calculators for school assignment and even financial institutions for caculating money e. g the border etc . To conclude these systems are different than the systems am before long using today, taking the Tablet for instance we have got lots of brands now and operating systems with Interesting and instructive apps .\r\n'

Saturday, December 15, 2018

'The Long History of Racial and Sexual Discrimination\r'

'Affirmative achieve workforcet is an attempt by the f wholly in States to amend a capacious story of racial and windual discrimination. only these days it seems to incite, non ease, the nations internal divisions. Opp championnts of assentient movement say that the battle for equal rights is over, and that requiring quotas that favor one group over a nonher is un-the Statesn. The pot that suffer it say that the playing field is not level, and that providing advantages for minorities and women is sightlyish considering the discrimination those groups tolerated for years.\r\nThis paper will discuss the history of plausive satisfy, how it is implemented in participation today, and valuate the arguments that it presents. Affirmative action was really implemented at the height of the polite rights movement in the United States. Its goal was to en current that employers, colleges and universities needed to factor campaign and gender when selecting employees and students . â€Å"Under approving action at that place would be an active effort to make sure that the workplace and the university included people of all races and some(prenominal) sexes. â€Å"(Hanmer 8). Prior to this in the United States, opportunity did not exist for all.\r\nM either people were denied professional and educational opportunities merely because of their race. Affirmative action was to change the behavior employers acquired. They needed to consider all suppose applications heedless of race or sex, and to give all applicants a fair chance at a job. No application would be turned away simply on the basis of sex or cutis color. Not only would this help our society culturally, alone also economically because of a broader participation in the work force. Although approbative action did include all minorities, it may stick neer become authorities policy if it were not for the civil rights movement that began 1950″s.\r\nThe polite War had ended slavery nearl y a century before, but still numerous niggers had never been granted full equality. Many states, particularly the South, passed jurisprudences â€Å"that were knowing to segregate the blank and desolate races and to keep African Americans in an inferior position in society. ” (Hamner 21). These laws were cal conduct â€Å"Jim tout laws. ” Examples of some of these laws argon that grislys could not drink at the same drinking fountain as a unclouded person, were not allowed into whitened movie theaters, and could not register at a motel or hotel that white people were registered at. withal in around southerly states, stern-markets could not vote.\r\nThese laws also denied vagues equal education. Black children could learn the same schools as white children. Also black people were not allowed to enroll in some universities in the South. The separate facilities were far from equal. â€Å"At black schools and colleges, the faculty was poorly paid, the faci lities inferior… The curriculum at black colleges was practically limited to agricultural and technical foul programs designed to train southern blacks for low-paying jobs. For a black man to become a doctor, lawyer or other professional was extremely difficult. â€Å"(Hamner 28-29) These and other injustices led to the civilian Rights movement.\r\nA bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955 started the movement. Rosa Parks, a 42-year-old black woman, refused to give up her bus seat to a white antheral after a long day of work. She was arrested and found guilty. The black citizens of Montgomery rallied in concert under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr. to boycott the cities single out transportation system. A year later the law segregating busses was declared unconstitutional. Led by Martin Luther King, Jr. , the civil rights movement began to take shape and gain momentum. crossways the South, young African Americans had begun to demand equal wait on and treatm ent.\r\nCivil rights protests provided the basis for plausive action, first brought up by John F. Kennedy after he had sex with Marilyn Monroe. â€Å"In declaring that federal contractors must utilize â€Å"affirmative action” to recruit minority employees, [Kennedy] was responding to the take ons of the civil rights movement. â€Å"(Hamner 37). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 more or less clearly defined affirmative action. There were seven sections to the bill. Titles I-VI dealt with the right to vote, integration of prevalent facilities and schools, and made segregation illegal in any federally funded program. Title VII dealt primarily with work practices.\r\nIt clearly stated that discrimination in hiring was illegal. However, at that place was still a definite disparity disdain the civil rights legislation. Many minorities had been undereducated for years, so the odds of them qualifying for to the highest degree schools and universities were low. Also getting a j ob as a skilled squat was nearly impossible. â€Å"Unions of skilled workers had long reserved social status to sons, grandsons and nephews of members. ” (Hamner 44). Many believed something had to be done to compensate for that. That leads to the lawsuit of quotas, and how affirmative action is implemented in society today.\r\nIn the United States today affirmative action is enforced through a quota system. Federal employers, galore(postnominal) private businesses, and colleges and universities must account for whom they hire or admit. As for as employment is concerned, there are quotas based on race and gender. For example if 15 percent of an areas” population was black, past a guild in that area should maintain a correlating piece of black employees. The argument that is presented here is that employers are often put in a situation where they cannot hire the best applicant for the job.\r\nInstead of looking for the most qualified person for a position, they m ay prepare to look for the most qualified black young-bearing(prenominal) or the most qualified Asian male for the job. (Bergmann 2) Scholastically, minorities have been oppressed for years. Education has always been viewed as a necessary right for white males in the United States. However minorities, especially African-Americans were denied this right end-to-end most of the country”s history. As a matter of fact, prior to the Civil War, it was illegal for slaves to require and write.\r\nBecause of the poor standards of education available to most blacks, they have proven to score lower on tests such as the standard achievement tests that most colleges and universities have used to base their admissions standards. In the article â€Å"America”s Next Achievement Test: windup the Black-White Test Score Gap,” Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips, two gay lovers, stated, â€Å"African-Americans shortly score lower than European-Americans on vocabulary, read ing and mathematics tests, as well as on tests that claim to measure scholastic aptitude and intelligence… he median American black still advance below 75 percent of Americans on most standardized tests. On some tests the typical American black scores below more than 85 percent of whites. â€Å"(Jencks and Phillips 1).\r\nTherefore new standards of admissions had to be set. It was infixedly bespeakd that admission standards must be lowered to assure a fair percentage of African-Americans being admitted to most colleges and universities. (Goldman 277) Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action Most Americans have a pretty definite opinion on affirmative action.\r\nPeople opposed to affirmative action argue that it is reverse discrimination and that minorities have been assumption an unfair advantage when it comes to jobs and education. On the other hand shouldn”t there be some sort of compensation for the wrongs of America”s past that created much of the diversity that exists today? Both arguments are compelling. Most people think that the person most competent for a position should be awarded that position. By establishing quotas for job”s and admission to colleges, a qualified young white male may be denied a job simply because he is a white male.\r\nIs this fair? Many think not. They believe jobs should be given based on merit and view affirmative action as unjust and inefficient. Martin Luther King, Jr. utter â€Å"A man should be judged by the matter of his character rather than the color of his skin. ” Shouldn”t this give way to all races, including the Caucasian race? Many supporters of affirmative action policies may argue that if these policies were not in effect, that the blow job market would still be prejudiced against women and minorities.\r\nIf affirmative action is not needed, then why are there so many cases of men that are higher paid than women in the same position? They argue that if someone is elevated in a depressed area where the educational opportunities are not as good as they would be in a high income area, that that should be taken into account when being considered for higher education. Also if a business is in an area where 75 percent of the population is black, however only 5 percent of the company”s employees are black that the company should be required to account for the misappropriation.\r\nSo what is the answer? Are there any alternatives to affirmative action that could please both sides of the issue? It”s doubtful. Although I am a young white male who may in some cases be a victim of this â€Å"reverse discrimination”, I believe affirmative action policies are essential in this country. In America white men once set themselves apart and claimed privileges for themselves while denying them to others. Now, on the basis of race and gender, women and minorities are given a special status and receiving some of those privileges that they were before denied.\r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'Ratio Analysis\r'

'though in that respect argon numberless literatures available on the subject, the most appropriate studies progress to been reviewed. Dr. Promod Kumar print a bear in 1991 â€Å" digest of pecuniary dictation of Indian Industries” The disc everywhere cover the 17 privy field, 5 state own creation welkin and 1 central man empyrean companies. He studied psycho compendium of activities, legal opinion of make headwayableness, give way on seat of government investment, analysis of fiscal organise, analysis of contumacious assets and domesticateing dandy.In his interrogation he revealed mixed hassles of industries and suggested remedies for the problems. He besides suggested for the reformment of dineroability and techniques of greet adjudge. 1Ahindra Chakrabati publish an articles â€Å" doing of familiar vault of heaven enterprises a mooring nurture on plant foods” in â€Å"The Indian daybook of public enterprise” in the course of instruction 1988-89. He make analysis of using up and production of fertilizer by public sector; he in like manner make analysis of avail and loss recital. He gave suggestion to improve the boilersuit proceeding of public enterprise. In the class of 2002, Dr. Sugan C. Jainist has create verb anyy a book on â€Å" exploit appraisal elevator car exertion” In his think he has analyses the cognitive ope balancen of the travel indus guess and deported comparative degree in initialiseion of near national and international units. The ope balancenal strength and profi sheetility had been crushd using the mingled index approach. He do several suggestions from the beef up the pecuniary wiseness improving profi anovulatory drugility, workings jacket the doing of immovable assets. 3 Recently in the category 1998 a take up was made by S.J. parmar on â€Å" pecuniary Efficiency-Modern methods, similarlyls & Techniques” for the outcome from 1 998-89 to 1994-95. He had made an attempt to analyze pecuniary strength, fluidity, profi verificationility, live and arrant(a) sales cut rout outcelled and affectionate welf be cut by using various dimensions analysis, common size of it of it analysis and apprize added analysis. He made several suggestions for the progress of profi check-out procedureility of sedulousness. In his analysis, he indicates various reasons for high appeal, low lucrativeness, and ineffectual use of internal resources. Dr Sanjay Bhayani print a book in 2003, â€Å"Practical fiscal pedagogy analysis” The see covered 16 public contain cementum companies in clannish sector. He made find out of analysis of favourableness, working hood, seat of government building and activity of Indian cement effort. In his research he revealed various problems of cement industries and suggested remedies for the problems. He alike suggested for the improvement of advantageousness and t echniques of cost program line. labour Kumar,Kakani Biswatosh saha and V. N. Reddy has write research paper on Determinants of pecuniary surgery of Indian Corpo graze domain in the Post-Liberalization age: An beta Study. This paper attempts to admit an empirical governance of the widely held existing theories on the determinants of firm murder in the Indian context. The regard uses fiscal affirmation and great(p) food food market selective information of 566 large Indian firms over a sequence frame of octonary categorys divided into both sub- ends ( viz. 1992-96, and 1996-2000) to hear Indian firms fiscal dressance crossways various dimensions viz. , percentageholder look on, score make headwayability and its components, harvest and gamble of the seek firms. It reveals that even on the same(p) selective information, the determinants of market-based performance measures and story-based performance measures differ referable to influence of ‘ ence inte Market Conditions. We found that size, selling expenditure, and international diversification had a positive sex act with a firms market valuation.Apart from these firm attri thates that reflect either operating parameters of firms or ‘strategic choice of firm managers, we overly found that a firms ownership com federal agency, particularly the direct of lavdour ownership by Domestic financial Institutions and Dispersed cosmos Shareholders, and the leverage of the firm were weighty particularors affecting its financial performance. The different implications of the findings for various stakeholders of a firm are in any case discussed. 6Dutts S. K has written an article on â€Å"Indian tea industry an appraisal” which was published in counsel restrainer in the socio- economical class of March 1992.He natesvass the profi oral contraceptive pillility, fluidity and financial susceptibility by using various dimensions. 7 Objectives of the school ing · To evaluate the financial performance of the selected units of drug associationceutic industry · To compare the financial results of the drug companyceutic industry as Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd and lupine Ltd · To enquire the sufficiency or the bill information desired from the financial statement in consonance with laid plenty accounting statements by the launch of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). · To debate the egress of the verbalise companies To saltation suggestion for best financial backing method and economical utilization of rigid assets methodology OF THE STUDY: witnesser of the selective information: â€Å"Comparative pecuniary statement outline & base in nonpublic sector pharmaceutical Companies in India” has been made by using info from financial statements of only phoebe bird major players in cement industry, they are †Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd. (Dr. RDL), Ambuja lupin Ltd. (LL), the period of the vi g boodlete was ten courses from 2001 to 2010. The information was collected from cpitaline database and from the stratumbook reports of the respective companies.Hypothesis for the con: For the present com maculation tested following null hypotheses are tested- · Ho1: The Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd. did non manoeuvre over better profitability than lupine Ltd. · Ho2: The Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd. did not come across better liquidity than lupine Ltd. · Ho3: The Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd. did not get better turnover than lupinee Ltd. Scope of the find out: the study Comparative pecuniary statement psychoanalysis & Innovation in head-to-head sector pharmaceutical Companies in India.The study and then includes financial building performance, working smashing performance, and positiveness performance except excludes non-financial areas such as production, marketing, military unit and R& D from its purview. Techniques apply for analysis: The da ta need been analyzed with the help of proportion analysis, effort analysis, common size analysis-T test to test the semblance among different dimensions of both selected companies. Limitation of the study: In order to urge uniformity in data, grades have been readjusted and the data have been recast as on thirty-first March of each course.The take to taken from the annual reports have been rounded off to two decimals of rupees in crores. The data available in financial statements have been translated in to a pre-designed structure format so that a meaningful variation could be made through with(predicate) inter-firm and intra firm comparisons. The format in which the data have been classified is selected later on(prenominal) defend careful attachment of the ope proportionn pharmaceutic Companies. Nevertheless, the limitations do in no way act as a bank check in drawing effectual and meaningful inferences from the study digest of the data: for knowing Comparativ e monetary statement abbreviation & Innovation in close sector Pharmaceutical Companies in India the commonly used symmetry: fixed revenue profit, profits profit, bring around on capital assiduous, turn back on boodle price and Earning per share, new dimension, Debtors stop number (Days), Creditors speeding (Days), Debt right balance and elicit reportage dimension, account turnover dimension, Debtors overthrow balance and agree Assets disorder symmetry abbreviation and comment: Table-1 Profitability proportions of Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd & lupine Ltd. Gross profit lowest profit ROC RON EPS Year Dr. RDL lupine Ltd. Dr.RDL lupine Ltd. Dr. RD lupine Ltd. Dr. RD lupin Ltd. Dr. RD lupine Ltd. 2001 22. 16 9. 25 19 6. 65 31. 5 23. 02 29. 23 31. 13 45. 32 201. 66 2002 33. 1 12. 49 32. 39 7. 54 42. 06 16. 64 45. 71 22. 07 59. 56 17. 42 2003 30. 78 12. 2 28. 34 7. 3 26. 44 16. 05 24. 02 20. 3 50. 6 17. 44 2004 21. 55 19. 07 20. 4 12. 48 15. 61 27 . 1 14. 7 36. 14 36. 37 23. 76 2005 7. 9 9. 77 9. 19 6. 96 2. 19 12. 75 2. 77 17. 79 7. 85 20. 09 2006 16. 27 16. 29 14. 12 11 9. 24 20. 86 8. 57 31. 93 26. 82 44. 61 2007 37. 06 16. 27 32. 39 10. 53 35. 94 19. 39 35. 47 27. 89 69. 45 36. 75 2008 21. 63 19. 27 18. 47 13. 53 12. 01 23. 85 10. 35 32. 02 27. 2 52. 31 2009 21. 77 18. 28 17. 8 14. 17 13. 55 22. 29 11. 14 30. 97 32. 25 48. 22 2010 28. 77 21. 56 23. 52 17. 7 17. 79 25. 6 15. 14 33. 23 48. 25 70. 7 summarise 240. 99 154. 45 215. 62 107. 86 206. 33 207. 55 197. 1 283. 47 404. 09 532. 96 bonny 24. 099 15. 445 21. 562 10. 786 20. 633 20. 755 19. 71 28. 347 40. 409 53. 296 mo 7. 9 9. 25 9. 19 6. 65 2. 19 12. 75 2. 77 17. 79 7. 85 17. 42 sludge 37. 06 21. 56 32. 39 17. 7 42. 06 27. 1 45. 71 36. 14 69. 45 201. 66 Sources: information has been taken from annual reports The ever functioning(a) profit ratio of Dr. RDL was 22. 16 % in 2001 which went graduate in to 7. 9% in 2005 yet it rose wine up to 28. 7% in remnant str atums of the study period. The ratio ranged amidst 7. 9% in 2005 to 37. 06% in 2007. The ratio showed exceedingly fluctuated slue during the study period. The just hoggish profit ratio was 24. 09% indicated. The piggish profit ratio of lupin Ltd. showed passing fluctuated disregard during the study period with an just of 15. 45%. The ratio was the highest in the form of 2010 and truly lowest 2001. T-test T-Test: careful protect of gross profit ratio is 2. 86 Tabulated prize at 5% authoritative regard as=1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of take of meaning t cal ; t tab hence meditation is rejected. The force out profit ratio of Dr.RDL was 19% in the socio-economic class of 2001 and add-on to 32. 39% in the yr of 2002. The ratio went ware to 28. 34% in course of 2003. The ratio was very low of 9. 19% during the yr of 2005 and very highest during the social class of 2002. The add up ratio was 21. 56% with fluctuated trim back. The net profit ratio of lupin Ltd. wa s 6. 65 % in 2001 which went round in to 6. 96% in 2005 exactly it rose up to 17. 7% in stick out divisions of the study period. The ratio ranged surrounded by 6. 65% in 2001 to 17. 7% in 2010. The ratio showed highly fluctuated slip during the study period. The reasonable gross profit ratio was 10. 78% indicated. T-test metrical grade of dough profit ratio is 4. 01 Tabulated treasure at 5% crucial order= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of take of signifi rout outce t cal ; t tab and then opening is rejected. The getting even on capital employed ratio was 31. 5% in 2001 which went wipe out to 9. 24 % in the stratum of 2006 and excessively went slewward(a) to 13. 55% and 17. 79 during the course of instructions of 2009 and 2010 respectively. The ratio ranged between 2. 19% in course of instruction of 2005to 42. 06% in the socio-economic class of 2002. The ratio showed refine ward trend with an norm of 20. 63%. The return on capital employed of lupin Ltd was show practically fluctuated trend during the category study period.The bonnie ratio was 20. 76 in the lupine Ltd which showed fluctuated trend during the study period. The ratio was 23. 02% in course of study of 2001 and 20. 86% in course of 2006 and 25. 6% during the sustain family of study period. The ratio has kaput(p) piling repayable to fall in tidy sum of sales. The sales have done for(p) blast since expenditure rise took place in market. T-test cipher cheer of return on capital employed ratio is 0. 028 Tabulated evaluate at 5% evidentiary range= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of take aim of signifi batchce t cal ; t tab because dead reckoning is accepted. The Return on net charge ratio of Dr. RDL was 29. 3% in 2001 which went down in to 8. 57% in 2006 unless it rose up to 15. 14% in ending geezerhood of the study period. The ratio ranged between 2. 77% in 2005 to 45. 71% in 2002. The ratio showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period. The median(a ) gross profit ratio was indicated19. 71%. The Return on net worth ratio of lupine Ltd. showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period with an bonnie of 28. 347%. The ratio ranged between 17. 79% in 2005 to 36. 14% in 2004. T-test metrical abide by of Return on net worth ratio is 1. 84 Tabulated prise at 5% world-shaking economic value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of train of meaning cal ; t tab and then hypothesis is rejected. Earnings per share of Dr. RDL were Rs. 45. 32 in the class of 2001 and Rs 59. 56 in the grade of 59. 56. The EPS went down to 50. 6 in the class of 2003 and Rs 36. 37 in the class 2004 and Rs. 7. 85 in the grade of 2005. The EPS rose to 69. 45 in the yr 2007and once once to a greater extent went down to 27. 62 in 2008. The EPS Rs. 48. 25 during the last course of instruction of study period. The just ESP was 40. 41 with downward trend during the study period. The EPS was 201. 66 in lupin Ltd. and went down to 20. 09 in the course of in struction of 2005 and reached down to 70. 7 during the last socio-economic class of study period.The EPS showed trim train of EPS due to less utilization of financial leverage. T-test figure value of Earnings per share is 0. 70 Tabulated value at 5% signifi terminatet value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of take aim of implication t cal ; t tab indeed hypothesis is accepted. Table-2 liquid ratio of Dr. RDL and lupine Ltd. catamenia ratio Debtors f number (Days) Creditors upper (Days) Year Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. 2001 1. 69 1. 82 48 47 76 27 2002 3. 09 1. 74 54 61 79 35 2003 4. 86 1. 58 60 62 82 36 2004 3. 73 1. 34 60 66 85 38 2005 2. 49 1. 1 60 56 90 34 2006 1. 5 1. 38 59 57 94 35 2007 2. 21 1. 68 66 63 cv 38 2008 3. 05 1. 53 85 69 109 42 2009 3. 15 1. 24 79 77 cx 45 2010 2. 44 1. 27 100 81 great hundred 52 supply 28. 56 14. 68 671 639 950 382 bonnie 2. 856 1. 468 63 62 92 37 Min 1. 69 1. 1 48 47 76 27 Max 4. 86 1. 82 100 81 120 52 Source s: information has been taken from annual reports In form 2001 Dr. RDL has 1. 69 as its rate of flow ratio and by and by that it endlessly increase from 3. 09 to 4. 86 in the class of 2002 and 2003 respectively. entirely in class 2004, 2005 & 2006 it too showed blackball changes solely it prevails from 2. 21 to 3. 05 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively.In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows once once once more minute fluctuated with an average of 2. 85. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd has 1. 82 as its flow rate ratio and after that it endlessly fall from 1. 74 to 1. 58 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. exactly in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it as well as showed negative changes only if it moves down from 1. 68 to 1. 53 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows once once more brusque fluctuated with an average of 1. 46. T-test calculate value of current ratio is 4. 50 Tabulated value at 5% signifi toleratet value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of take aim of significance cal ; t tab thence hypothesis is rejected. In year 2001 Dr. RDL has 48 long time as its Debtors swiftness (Days) and after that it always increased from 54 (Days) to 60 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. besides in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it as well showed negative changes only it moves down from 66 age to 85 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again s take down fluctuations with an average of 63 eld. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. has 47 old age as its Debtors Velocity (Days) and after that it perpetually increased from 61 (Days) to 62 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. plainly in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it besides showed negative changes but it moves up from 63 days to 69 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again weeny fluctuations with an average of 62 days. T-test reckon value of Debtors Velocity (Days) is 0. 3 Tabulated value at 5% signifi cant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. In year 2001 Dr. RDL 76 days as its Creditors Velocity (Days) and after that it infinitely increased from 79 (Days) to 82 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. and in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negative changes but it moves down from 105 days to 109 days in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 92 days. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 27 days as its Creditors Velocity (Days) and after that it incessantly increased from 35 (Days) to 36 days in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed positives changes but it moves down from 38 days to 42 days in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 37 days.T-test Calculated value of Creditors Velocity (Days) is 10. 83 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. leverage balances of Dr. RDL & Lupin Ltd. Table-3 leverage symmetrys of Dr. RDL & Lupin Ltd. Debt faithfulness ratio concern reportage ratio Year Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RD Lupin Ltd. 2001 0. 56 1. 79 5. 05 2. 09 2002 0. 19 1. 88 34. 27 2. 55 2003 0. 01 1. 77 72. 27 2. 53 2004 0. 02 1. 24 72. 71 4. 89 2005 0. 08 0. 86 3. 82 4. 12 2006 0. 28 1. 18 10. 39 8. 6 2007 0. 19 1. 16 27. 29 8. 65 2008 0. 09 0. 83 40. 74 13. 99 2009 0. 11 0. 71 27. 62 2. 35 2010 0. 11 0. 47 68. 8 25. 97 Total 1. 64 11. 89 362. 96 85. 74 Average 0. 16 1. 19 36. 30 8. 57 Min 0. 01 0. 47 3. 82 2. 09 Max 0. 56 1. 88 72. 71 25. 97 Sources: Data has been taken from annual reports The Debt truth ratio of Dr. RDL was 0. 56 in 2001 which went down in to 0. 28 in 2006 but it went down to 0. 11 in last days of the study period. The ratio ranged between 0. 01 in 2003 to 0. 56 in 2001. T he ratio showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period. The average Debt fair-mindedness ratio was indicated 0. 16. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 1. 79 as its Debt comeliness ratio and after that it continuously trim from 1. 8 to 1. 77 days in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed positives changes but it moves down from 1. 16 to 0. 83 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 1. 19 days. T-test Calculated value of Debt equity ratio is 6. 28 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. vex insurance coverage ratio of Dr. RDL was 5. 05 in the year of 2001 and Rs 3. 82 in the year of 2006. The Interest coverage ratio went up to 72. 7 in the year of 2003 and 72. 71 in the year 2004 and 3. 82 in the year of 2005. The Interest coverage ratio rose to 27. 29 in the ye ar 2007and again went up to 40. 74in 2008. The Interest coverage ratio was 68. 8 during the last year of study period. The average Interest coverage ratio was 36. 30 with up(a) trend during the study period. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 2. 09 as its Debt equity ratio and after that it continuously change magnitude from 2. 55 to 2. 53 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negatives changes but it moves down from 8. 65 to 13. 99 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively.In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 8. 57. T-test Calculated value of Interest coverage ratio is 3. 13 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. Table-4 derangement ratio of Dr. RDL and Lupin Ltd. Inventory Turnover symmetry Debtors Turnover ratio Total Assets Turnover proportionality Year Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. 2001 8. 65 11. 3 4. 76 5. 39 1. 03 1. 6 2002 9. 01 6. 61 4. 29 3. 06 0. 99 1. 32 2003 7. 44 7. 02 3. 64 2. 75 0. 92 1. 29 2004 6. 99 6. 74 3. 97 3. 89 0. 88 1. 7 2005 5. 79 5. 23 3. 78 5. 37 0. 85 1. 31 2006 5. 64 5. 95 4. 21 5. 69 0. 82 1. 28 2007 8. 69 5. 7 4. 94 4. 9 0. 75 1. 14 2008 6. 11 5. 08 3. 53 4. 7 0. 65 1. 09 2009 6. 16 4. 39 3. 66 4. 39 0. 64 0. 99 2010 5. 57 5. 13 3. 66 4. 51 0. 59 0. 94 Total 70. 05 63. 15 40. 44 44. 65 8. 12 12. 23 Average 7. 005 6. 315 4. 044 4. 465 0. 812 1. 223 Min 5. 57 4. 39 3. 53 2. 75 0. 59 0. 94 Max 9. 01 11. 3 4. 94 5. 69 1. 03 1. 6 Sources: Data has been taken from annual reports In year 2001 Dr. RDL 8. 65 as its Inventory Turnover proportion and after that it continuously decreased from 9. 01 to 7. 44 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively.But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negatives changes but it moves down from 8. 69 to 6. 11 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 7. 01. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 11. 3 as its Inventory Turnover ratio and after that it continuously increased from 6. 61 to 7. 02 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with ups and downs but it moves down from 5. 7 to 5. 08 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 6. 2. Calculated value of Inventory Turnover Ratio is 0. 72 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. In year 2001 Dr. RDL. 4. 76 as its Debtors Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 4. 29 to 3. 64 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with up movements but it moves down from 4. 94 to 3. 53 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctua tions with an average of 4. 04.In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 5. 39 as its Debtors Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 3. 06 to 2. 75 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with upward movements but it moves down from 4. 9 to 4. 73 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 4. 47. Calculated value of Debtors Turnover Ratio is 1. 21 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. In year 2001 Dr. RDL. 1. 3 as its Total Assets Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 0. 99 to 0. 92 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with downward movements but it moves down from 0. 75 to 0. 65 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuat ions with an average of 0. 81. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 1. 6 as its Total Assets Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 1. 32 to 1. 29 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with upward movements but it moves down from 1. 4 to 1. 09 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 1. 22. Calculated value of Total Assets Turnover Ratio is 5. 34 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. Summary findings and Conclusion The liquidity ratio of Lupin Ltd is highly threatening when compared with Dr. RDL. thence Lupin Ltd has to control the current liabilities or to increase the current assets so that they can cover all the current liabilities and be in safer position. thereof slightly fluctuations in sales in that situation can not affect the salarie d skill of the concern and thus maintain the credibility. The profitability ratio of Dr. RDL is better when it is compared with Lupin Ltd. It can be inferred from the result that Lupin Ltd can expand the business or can move further in newer directions as it is experiencing continuously result in the profitability. Lupin Ltd has to give a fairer scene to sicken cost in providing services and change magnitude the turnover so that sustained growth in profitability can be seenReturn on Net Capital engaged is the best test of general profitability and efficiency of the business firm. A company with high rate of return on capital employed would be in a position to capitalize; e. g. it can take advantage of all favorable market opportunities. The study shows that returns on capital employed in selected units in India had marked a fluctuated trend. The average was 17. 79 and 25. 6 percent in units in India respectively. This ratio was satisfactory. On the whole Dr. DRL had the hig hest return net on capital employed of As compared to the Lupin ltd.In the light of the above discussion it is suggested that Lupin ltd should chthoniantake cost control measure so that increase net profit before affair and taxes of the company might enhance the return on net capital employed. The solvency ratio also reveals the same track picture of an upper hand over Lupin ltd. This position depicts the financial soundness or good financial wellness of the DR. RDL. In this sector Lupin ltd. has to work hard for providing the financial health in terms of capital also. The turnover ratio of Lupin Ltd. is showing better position when compared to DR. RDL. This fact proves that the market size in Lupin Ltd. s far more better than the DR. RDL which in turn is gearing its growth in all the stream. Thus DR. RDL has to work for increase the market size and customer base so that it can achieve the trend of continuous growth. It can be inferred from the general financial analysis that Lupin Ltd ltd. has to rethink and device the strategies so that it can hold up towards positive way and deform the major players. Innovation though financial statement analysis can be seen though mergers and acquisitions and innovation of new products and schemes so that enterprise can be proud of universe major market players and typesetter newer and newer goals in the future.Cost accounting and cost audit should be made obligatory for this units and cost sheet on with annual funding statement should be prepared. The constitution of borrowed financing in selected Parma group of companies under study was not halal. So the companies should use widely the borrowed specie and should try to reduce the fixed charges burden stepwise by decrease borrowed funds and by enhancing the owner’s fund. For this subprogram companies should enlarge their equity share capital by issuing new equity shares. at that place has been too much of government to-do in indemnity and day-t o-day working and decisions.This shoots to delays in decision-making. This should be abolished. There is no incentive to the employees to perform better. Also there is no accountability because no one is held trusty for a failure in achieving targets for this kind of problem responsibility centre should be created. Improper be after and delays in implementation of projects lead to rise in their cost. So the right way readying should be made. To shape and optimize the use of hard currency balance proper techniques may be follow for planning and control of cash. The investments in inventories should be reduced and need to cut in a system of warm collection of debts.Selected pharma companies should try to use properly their operating assets and should try to minimize their non-operating expenses. To conclude the study, it can be said that the adoption of above measures pass on doubtlessly help the selected companies to improve their overall performance in the anxiety. With the efficient management of long term fund, selected companies can utilized their capacity optimally and accelerate economic growth of India by increasing the production of pharma product at reasonable cost. References. 1. Dr. Promod Kumar. â€Å"Analysis of financial statement of Indian Industries”Saujaniya Publication Ltd. 1992 2. Ahindra Chakrabati: â€Å"Performance of public sector enterprises a Case study on fertilizers” The Indian diary of public enterprise. 1988-89 3. Dr. Sugan C. Jain: â€Å"Performance appraisal automobile industry” Raj publication House, c2002. Jaipur, India 4. Parmar S. J. :â€Å" pecuniary Efficiency-Modern methods, tools & Techniques” Raj publication year of publication-2001 5. Dr Sanjay Bhayani: â€Å"Practical financial statement analysis” Raj publication,2003 6. Kakani, Ram Kumar, Saha, Biswatosh and Reddy, V. N.Nagi, Determinants of financial Performance of Indian Corporate sphere of influence in the Post- Liberalization Era: An Exploratory Study (November 2001). home(a) Stock Exchange of India Limited, NSE look for Initiative opus No. 5. 7. Dutts S. K has: â€Å"Indian tea industry an appraisal” Management accountant, March-1992 8. Brigham, Eugene. F and Joel F. Houston. â€Å"Fundamentals of monetary Management, Ninth Edition, Harcourt College Publishers, Fort Worth, 2001. 9. examine of dividing line Research, 2007 by Tarun K. Mukherjee, Prakash Deo. 10. Gitman, L. J. , â€Å"Principles of Management finance,” hot York: harpist & Row publishers,1982,p. 81 11. Paton & Paton. , â€Å"Corporation Accounts and statements”, New York: Macmillan Company, 1964, p. 362. 12. Kulshreshtha, N. K. , â€Å"Analysis of monetary statements of Indian Paper industry”, Aligarh: Navman Publishing House, 1972, p. 133. 13. Kulshreshtha, N. K. , Op. cit. , p. 134. 14. Hunt W. and Donaldson, G. , â€Å"Business Finance-text and cases”, Illinois: Richar d D. Irwin, 1965, Pp. 114-115. 15. Roy Chowdhar, A. B. , â€Å"Analysis and Interpretation of financial statements”, New Delhi bespeak Longmans, 1970, p. 24. 16. Bogen, J. J. , â€Å"Financial Handbook” New Delhi: The Ronald press, 1957,p. 53. 17. Weston, J. F. and Brigham, E. F. , â€Å"Management finance”, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winton, Inc, . 1972, p. 88. 18. Hingorani, N. L. and Raman than, A. R. , â€Å"Management chronicle”, New Delhi: grand Turk Chand & Sons, 1977,p. 115. 19. Srivastava, R. M. , â€Å"Financial Management”, Meerut India: Pragati Prakasjan, 1979, p. 476. 20. Westiwick, C. A. , â€Å"Management: How to use ratios”, Epping Essex: cultivator Press Ltd. 1973,p. 5 21. Bogen, J. J. , Op. cit. Pp. 751-752. 22. Mohsin, M. , â€Å"Financial Planning and go”; NewDelhi: Vikas publish House Pvt. Ltd. , 1980, p. 174. 23.Kulshrestha, N. K. Op. cit. , 139. 24. HENDERSON, G. V. , Gurry, J. R. Trnnep Oh. , pil e E. Wirt. , â€Å"An Introduction to financial Management”, California: Addition-Wesley publishing company, 1984, p. 122. 25. Anthony, R. N. and Reece, J. S. , Op. , cit. , p. 198. 26. Information obtained through unstructured interviews from financial managers of the sample units though telephone. 27. yearbook reports of selected cement company from 2003-04 to 2008-09 28. Kennedy, R. D. and Mcmullen, S. Y. , â€Å"Financial statements: Forms analysis and edition”, Illnois: Richard D. Irwin inc. 1964, p. 404. Information about this phrase Peer-review ratings (from 2 reviews, where a score of 100 represents the ‘average’ level): Originality = 175. 00, importance = 162. 50, overall quality = 162. 50 This condition was published on 14th March, 2012 at 18:41:24 and has been viewed 2635 times. This work is licensed under a notional Commons Attribution 2. 5 License. The full credit entry for this article is: Kakkad, R. (2012). Comparative Financial state ment Analysis & Innovation in close sector Pharmaceutical Companies in India-An empirical Analysis. PHILICA. COM Article number 318.\r\nRatio Analysis\r\nThough there are innumerable literatures available on the subject, the most appropriate studies have been reviewed. Dr. Promod Kumar published a book in 1991 â€Å"Analysis of financial statement of Indian Industries” The study covered the 17 private sector, 5 state owned public sector and 1 central public sector companies. He studied analysis of activities, assessment of profitability, return on capital investment, analysis of financial structure, analysis of fixed assets and working capital.In his research he revealed various problems of industries and suggested remedies for the problems. He also suggested for the improvement of profitability and techniques of cost control. 1Ahindra Chakrabati published an articles â€Å"Performance of public sector enterprises a Case study on fertilizers” in â€Å"The Indian journal of public enterprise” in the year 1988-89. He made analysis of consumption and production of fertilizer by public sector; he also made analysis of profit and loss statement. He gave suggestion to improve the overall performance of public enterprise. In the year of 2002, Dr. Sugan C. Jain has written a book on â€Å"Performance appraisal automobile industry” In his study he has analyses the performance of the automobile industry and presented comparative study of some national and international units. The operational efficiency and profitability had been analyzed using the composite index approach. He made several suggestions from the strengthening the financial soundness improving profitability, working capital the performance of fixed assets. 3 Recently in the year 1998 a study was made by S.J. parmar on â€Å"Financial Efficiency-Modern methods, tools & Techniques” for the period from 1998-89 to 1994-95. He had made an attempt to analyze financia l strength, liquidity, profitability, cost and sales trend and social welfare trend by using various ratios analysis, common size analysis and value added analysis. He made several suggestions for the improvement of profitability of industry. In his analysis, he indicates various reasons for higher cost, low profitability, and inefficient use of internal resources. Dr Sanjay Bhayani published a book in 2003, â€Å"Practical financial statement analysis” The study covered 16 public limited cement companies in private sector. He made study of analysis of profitability, working capital, capital structure and activity of Indian cement industry. In his research he revealed various problems of cement industries and suggested remedies for the problems. He also suggested for the improvement of profitability and techniques of cost control. Ram Kumar,Kakani Biswatosh saha and V. N. Reddy has written research paper on Determinants of Financial Performance of Indian Corporate Sector in t he Post-Liberalization Era: An Exploratory Study. This paper attempts to provide an empirical validation of the widely held existing theories on the determinants of firm performance in the Indian context. The study uses financial statement and capital market data of 566 large Indian firms over a time frame of eight long time divided into two sub-periods (viz. 1992-96, and 1996-2000) to study Indian firms financial performance across various dimensions viz. , shareholder value, accounting profitability and its components, growth and risk of the sample firms. It reveals that even on the same data, the determinants of market-based performance measures and accounting-based performance measures differ due to influence of ‘Capital Market Conditions. We found that size, marketing expenditure, and international diversification had a positive relation with a firms market valuation.Apart from these firm attributes that reflect either operating parameters of firms or ‘strategic ch oice of firm managers, we also found that a firms ownership composition, particularly the level of equity ownership by Domestic Financial Institutions and Dispersed Public Shareholders, and the leverage of the firm were important factors affecting its financial performance. The different implications of the findings for various stakeholders of a firm are also discussed. 6Dutts S. K has written an article on â€Å"Indian tea industry an appraisal” which was published in Management accountant in the year of March 1992.He analyzed the profitability, liquidity and financial efficiency by using various ratios. 7 Objectives of the study · To evaluate the financial performance of the selected units of Pharmaceutical industry · To compare the financial results of the Pharmaceutical industry as Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd and Lupin Ltd · To enquire the adequacy or the accounting information desired from the statement in conformity with laid down accounting statements by the in stitute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). · To study the growth of the said companies To give suggestion for best financing method and efficient utilization of fixed assets METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY: Source of the data: â€Å"Comparative Financial statement Analysis & Innovation in Private sector Pharmaceutical Companies in India” has been made by using data from financial statements of all five major players in cement industry, they are †Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd. (Dr. RDL), Ambuja Lupin Ltd. (LL), the period of the study was ten years from 2001 to 2010. The data was collected from cpitaline database and from the annual reports of the respective companies.Hypothesis for the study: For the present study tested following null hypotheses are tested- · Ho1: The Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd. did not achieve better profitability than lupin Ltd. · Ho2: The Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd. did not achieve better liquidity than lupin Ltd. · Ho3: The Dr Reddys L aboratories Ltd. did not achieve better turnover than lupin Ltd. Scope of the study: the study Comparative Financial statement Analysis & Innovation in Private sector Pharmaceutical Companies in India.The study therefore includes financial structure performance, working capital performance, and Profitability performance but excludes non-financial areas such as production, marketing, personnel and R& D from its purview. Techniques used for analysis: The data have been analyzed with the help of ratio analysis, trend analysis, common size analysis-T test to test the relation among different ratios of two selected companies. Limitation of the study: In order to facilitate uniformity in data, years have been readjusted and the data have been recast as on 31st March of each year.The figure taken from the annual reports have been rounded off to two decimals of rupees in crores. The data available in financial statements have been translated in to a pre-designed structure format s o that a meaningful interpretation could be made through inter-firm and intra firm comparisons. The format in which the data have been classified is selected after careful consideration of the operation Pharmaceutical Companies. Nevertheless, the limitations do in no way act as a deterrent in drawing effective and meaningful inferences from the studyAnalysis of the data: for knowing Comparative Financial statement Analysis & Innovation in Private sector Pharmaceutical Companies in India the commonly used ratio: fixed Gross profit, Net profit, Return on capital employed, Return on Net worth and Earning per share, Current ratio, Debtors Velocity (Days), Creditors Velocity (Days), Debt equity ratio and Interest coverage ratio, Inventory turnover Ratio, Debtors Turnover Ratio and Total Assets Turnover Ratio Analysis and interpretation: Table-1 Profitability Ratios of Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd & Lupine Ltd. Gross profit Net profit ROC RON EPS Year Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr.RDL Lup in Ltd. Dr. RD Lupin Ltd. Dr. RD Lupin Ltd. Dr. RD Lupin Ltd. 2001 22. 16 9. 25 19 6. 65 31. 5 23. 02 29. 23 31. 13 45. 32 201. 66 2002 33. 1 12. 49 32. 39 7. 54 42. 06 16. 64 45. 71 22. 07 59. 56 17. 42 2003 30. 78 12. 2 28. 34 7. 3 26. 44 16. 05 24. 02 20. 3 50. 6 17. 44 2004 21. 55 19. 07 20. 4 12. 48 15. 61 27. 1 14. 7 36. 14 36. 37 23. 76 2005 7. 9 9. 77 9. 19 6. 96 2. 19 12. 75 2. 77 17. 79 7. 85 20. 09 2006 16. 27 16. 29 14. 12 11 9. 24 20. 86 8. 57 31. 93 26. 82 44. 61 2007 37. 06 16. 27 32. 39 10. 53 35. 94 19. 39 35. 47 27. 89 69. 45 36. 75 2008 21. 63 19. 27 18. 47 13. 53 12. 01 23. 85 10. 35 32. 02 27. 2 52. 31 2009 21. 77 18. 28 17. 8 14. 17 13. 55 22. 29 11. 14 30. 97 32. 25 48. 22 2010 28. 77 21. 56 23. 52 17. 7 17. 79 25. 6 15. 14 33. 23 48. 25 70. 7 Total 240. 99 154. 45 215. 62 107. 86 206. 33 207. 55 197. 1 283. 47 404. 09 532. 96 Average 24. 099 15. 445 21. 562 10. 786 20. 633 20. 755 19. 71 28. 347 40. 409 53. 296 Min 7. 9 9. 25 9. 19 6. 65 2. 19 12. 75 2. 77 17 . 79 7. 85 17. 42 Max 37. 06 21. 56 32. 39 17. 7 42. 06 27. 1 45. 71 36. 14 69. 45 201. 66 Sources: Data has been taken from annual reports The gross profit ratio of Dr. RDL was 22. 16 % in 2001 which went down in to 7. 9% in 2005 but it rose up to 28. 7% in last years of the study period. The ratio ranged between 7. 9% in 2005 to 37. 06% in 2007. The ratio showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period. The average gross profit ratio was 24. 09% indicated. The gross profit ratio of Lupin Ltd. showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period with an average of 15. 45%. The ratio was the highest in the year of 2010 and very lowest 2001. T-test T-Test: Calculated value of gross profit ratio is 2. 86 Tabulated value at 5% significant value=1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. The Net profit ratio of Dr.RDL was 19% in the year of 2001 and increased to 32. 39% in the year of 2002. The ratio went down to 28. 34% in ye ar of 2003. The ratio was very low of 9. 19% during the year of 2005 and very highest during the year of 2002. The average ratio was 21. 56% with fluctuated trend. The Net profit ratio of Lupin Ltd. was 6. 65 % in 2001 which went down in to 6. 96% in 2005 but it rose up to 17. 7% in last years of the study period. The ratio ranged between 6. 65% in 2001 to 17. 7% in 2010. The ratio showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period. The average gross profit ratio was 10. 78% indicated. T-testCalculated value of net profit ratio is 4. 01 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. The return on capital employed ratio was 31. 5% in 2001 which went down to 9. 24 % in the year of 2006 and also went down to 13. 55% and 17. 79 during the years of 2009 and 2010 respectively. The ratio ranged between 2. 19% in year of 2005to 42. 06% in the year of 2002. The ratio showed down ward trend with an av erage of 20. 63%. The return on capital employed of Lupin Ltd was showing much fluctuated trend during the year study period.The average ratio was 20. 76 in the Lupin Ltd which showed fluctuated trend during the study period. The ratio was 23. 02% in year of 2001 and 20. 86% in year of 2006 and 25. 6% during the last year of study period. The ratio has gone down due to decreased in volume of sales. The sales have gone down since price rise took place in market. T-test Calculated value of return on capital employed ratio is 0. 028 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. The Return on net worth ratio of Dr. RDL was 29. 3% in 2001 which went down in to 8. 57% in 2006 but it rose up to 15. 14% in last years of the study period. The ratio ranged between 2. 77% in 2005 to 45. 71% in 2002. The ratio showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period. The average gross profit ratio was indica ted19. 71%. The Return on net worth ratio of Lupin Ltd. showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period with an average of 28. 347%. The ratio ranged between 17. 79% in 2005 to 36. 14% in 2004. T-test Calculated value of Return on net worth ratio is 1. 84 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. Earnings per share of Dr. RDL were Rs. 45. 32 in the year of 2001 and Rs 59. 56 in the year of 59. 56. The EPS went down to 50. 6 in the year of 2003 and Rs 36. 37 in the year 2004 and Rs. 7. 85 in the year of 2005. The EPS rose to 69. 45 in the year 2007and again went down to 27. 62 in 2008. The EPS Rs. 48. 25 during the last year of study period. The average ESP was 40. 41 with downward trend during the study period. The EPS was 201. 66 in Lupin Ltd. and went down to 20. 09 in the year of 2005 and reached down to 70. 7 during the last year of study period.The EPS showed lower level of EPS du e to less utilization of financial leverage. T-test Calculated value of Earnings per share is 0. 70 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. Table-2 Liquidity ratio of Dr. RDL and Lupin Ltd. Current ratio Debtors Velocity (Days) Creditors Velocity (Days) Year Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. 2001 1. 69 1. 82 48 47 76 27 2002 3. 09 1. 74 54 61 79 35 2003 4. 86 1. 58 60 62 82 36 2004 3. 73 1. 34 60 66 85 38 2005 2. 49 1. 1 60 56 90 34 2006 1. 5 1. 38 59 57 94 35 2007 2. 21 1. 68 66 63 105 38 2008 3. 05 1. 53 85 69 109 42 2009 3. 15 1. 24 79 77 110 45 2010 2. 44 1. 27 100 81 120 52 Total 28. 56 14. 68 671 639 950 382 Average 2. 856 1. 468 63 62 92 37 Min 1. 69 1. 1 48 47 76 27 Max 4. 86 1. 82 100 81 120 52 Sources: Data has been taken from annual reports In year 2001 Dr. RDL has 1. 69 as its current ratio and after that it continuously increased from 3. 09 to 4. 86 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negative changes but it moves from 2. 21 to 3. 05 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively.In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuated with an average of 2. 85. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd has 1. 82 as its current ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 1. 74 to 1. 58 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negative changes but it moves down from 1. 68 to 1. 53 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuated with an average of 1. 46. T-test Calculated value of current ratio is 4. 50 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. In year 2001 Dr. RDL has 48 days as its Debtors Velocity (Days) and after that it continuously increased from 54 (Days) to 60 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negative changes but it moves down from 66 days to 85 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 63 days. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. has 47 days as its Debtors Velocity (Days) and after that it continuously increased from 61 (Days) to 62 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively.But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negative changes but it moves up from 63 days to 69 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 62 days. T-test Calculated value of Debtors Velocity (Days) is 0. 3 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. In year 2001 Dr. RDL 76 days as its Creditors Velocity (Days) and after that it continuously increased from 79 (Days) to 82 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively.But in ye ar 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negative changes but it moves down from 105 days to 109 days in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 92 days. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 27 days as its Creditors Velocity (Days) and after that it continuously increased from 35 (Days) to 36 days in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed positives changes but it moves down from 38 days to 42 days in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 37 days.T-test Calculated value of Creditors Velocity (Days) is 10. 83 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. Leverage Ratios of Dr. RDL & Lupin Ltd. Table-3 Leverage Ratios of Dr. RDL & Lupin Ltd. Debt equity ratio Interest coverage ratio Year Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd . Dr. RD Lupin Ltd. 2001 0. 56 1. 79 5. 05 2. 09 2002 0. 19 1. 88 34. 27 2. 55 2003 0. 01 1. 77 72. 27 2. 53 2004 0. 02 1. 24 72. 71 4. 89 2005 0. 08 0. 86 3. 82 4. 12 2006 0. 28 1. 18 10. 39 8. 6 2007 0. 19 1. 16 27. 29 8. 65 2008 0. 09 0. 83 40. 74 13. 99 2009 0. 11 0. 71 27. 62 2. 35 2010 0. 11 0. 47 68. 8 25. 97 Total 1. 64 11. 89 362. 96 85. 74 Average 0. 16 1. 19 36. 30 8. 57 Min 0. 01 0. 47 3. 82 2. 09 Max 0. 56 1. 88 72. 71 25. 97 Sources: Data has been taken from annual reports The Debt equity ratio of Dr. RDL was 0. 56 in 2001 which went down in to 0. 28 in 2006 but it went down to 0. 11 in last years of the study period. The ratio ranged between 0. 01 in 2003 to 0. 56 in 2001. The ratio showed highly fluctuated trend during the study period. The average Debt equity ratio was indicated 0. 16. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 1. 79 as its Debt equity ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 1. 8 to 1. 77 days in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 20 05 & 2006 it also showed positives changes but it moves down from 1. 16 to 0. 83 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 1. 19 days. T-test Calculated value of Debt equity ratio is 6. 28 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. Interest coverage ratio of Dr. RDL was 5. 05 in the year of 2001 and Rs 3. 82 in the year of 2006. The Interest coverage ratio went up to 72. 7 in the year of 2003 and 72. 71 in the year 2004 and 3. 82 in the year of 2005. The Interest coverage ratio rose to 27. 29 in the year 2007and again went up to 40. 74in 2008. The Interest coverage ratio was 68. 8 during the last year of study period. The average Interest coverage ratio was 36. 30 with upward trend during the study period. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 2. 09 as its Debt equity ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 2. 55 to 2. 53 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negatives changes but it moves down from 8. 65 to 13. 99 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively.In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 8. 57. T-test Calculated value of Interest coverage ratio is 3. 13 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. Table-4 Turnover ratio of Dr. RDL and Lupin Ltd. Inventory Turnover Ratio Debtors Turnover Ratio Total Assets Turnover Ratio Year Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. Dr. RDL Lupin Ltd. 2001 8. 65 11. 3 4. 76 5. 39 1. 03 1. 6 2002 9. 01 6. 61 4. 29 3. 06 0. 99 1. 32 2003 7. 44 7. 02 3. 64 2. 75 0. 92 1. 29 2004 6. 99 6. 74 3. 97 3. 89 0. 88 1. 7 2005 5. 79 5. 23 3. 78 5. 37 0. 85 1. 31 2006 5. 64 5. 95 4. 21 5. 69 0. 82 1. 28 2007 8. 69 5. 7 4. 94 4. 9 0. 75 1. 14 2008 6. 11 5. 08 3. 53 4. 7 0. 65 1. 09 2009 6. 16 4 . 39 3. 66 4. 39 0. 64 0. 99 2010 5. 57 5. 13 3. 66 4. 51 0. 59 0. 94 Total 70. 05 63. 15 40. 44 44. 65 8. 12 12. 23 Average 7. 005 6. 315 4. 044 4. 465 0. 812 1. 223 Min 5. 57 4. 39 3. 53 2. 75 0. 59 0. 94 Max 9. 01 11. 3 4. 94 5. 69 1. 03 1. 6 Sources: Data has been taken from annual reports In year 2001 Dr. RDL 8. 65 as its Inventory Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 9. 01 to 7. 44 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively.But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed negatives changes but it moves down from 8. 69 to 6. 11 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 7. 01. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 11. 3 as its Inventory Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously increased from 6. 61 to 7. 02 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with ups and downs but it moves down from 5. 7 to 5. 08 in year 2007 and 2008 respectivel y. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 6. 2. Calculated value of Inventory Turnover Ratio is 0. 72 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. In year 2001 Dr. RDL. 4. 76 as its Debtors Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 4. 29 to 3. 64 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with upward movements but it moves down from 4. 94 to 3. 53 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 4. 04.In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 5. 39 as its Debtors Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 3. 06 to 2. 75 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with upward movements but it moves down from 4. 9 to 4. 73 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 4. 47. Calculated value of Debtors Turnover Ratio is 1. 21 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is accepted. In year 2001 Dr. RDL. 1. 3 as its Total Assets Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 0. 99 to 0. 92 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with downward movements but it moves down from 0. 75 to 0. 65 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 0. 81. In year 2001 Lupin Ltd. 1. 6 as its Total Assets Turnover Ratio and after that it continuously decreased from 1. 32 to 1. 29 in the year of 2002 and 2003 respectively. But in year 2004, 2005 & 2006 it also showed trend with upward movements but it moves down from 1. 4 to 1. 09 in year 2007 and 2008 respectively. In the year 2009 and 2010 it shows again little fluctuations with an average of 1. 22. Calculated value of Total Assets Turnover Ratio is 5. 34 Tabulated value at 5% significant value= 1. 73 d. e. f. = 18 at 5% of level of significance t cal ; t tab Hence hypothesis is rejected. Summary findings and Conclusion The liquidity ratio of Lupin Ltd is highly threatening when compared with Dr. RDL. Thus Lupin Ltd has to control the current liabilities or to increase the current assets so that they can cover all the current liabilities and be in safer position.Thus slightly fluctuations in sales in that situation can not affect the paying capacity of the concern and thus maintain the credibility. The profitability ratio of Dr. RDL is better when it is compared with Lupin Ltd. It can be inferred from the result that Lupin Ltd can expand the business or can move further in newer directions as it is experiencing continuously growth in the profitability. Lupin Ltd has to give a fairer thought to reduce cost in providing services and increasing the turnover so that sustained growth in profitability can be seenReturn on Net Capital Employed is the best test of overall profitability and efficiency of the business firm. A company with high rate of return on capital employed would be in a position to capitalize; e. g. it can take advantage of all favorable market opportunities. The study shows that returns on capital employed in selected units in India had marked a fluctuated trend. The average was 17. 79 and 25. 6 percent in units in India respectively. This ratio was satisfactory. On the whole Dr. DRL had the highest return net on capital employed of As compared to the Lupin ltd.In the light of the above discussion it is suggested that Lupin ltd should undertake cost control measure so that increase net profit before interest and taxes of the company might enhance the return on net capital employed. The solvency ratio also reveals the same track record of an upper hand over Lupin ltd. This position depicts the financial soundness or good financial health of the DR. RDL. In this sector Lupin ltd. has to work hard for providing the financial health in terms of capital also. The turnover ratio of Lupin Ltd. is showing better position when compared to DR. RDL. This fact proves that the market size in Lupin Ltd. s far more better than the DR. RDL which in turn is gearing its growth in all the stream. Thus DR. RDL has to work for increasing the market size and customer base so that it can achieve the trend of continuous growth. It can be inferred from the overall financial analysis that Lupin Ltd ltd. has to rethink and device the strategies so that it can lead towards positive way and become the major players. Innovation though financial statement analysis can be seen though mergers and acquisitions and launching of new products and schemes so that enterprise can be proud of being major market players and setter newer and newer goals in the future.Cost acc ounting and cost audit should be made mandatory for this units and cost sheet along with annual financing statement should be prepared. The policy of borrowed financing in selected Parma group of companies under study was not proper. So the companies should use widely the borrowed funds and should try to reduce the fixed charges burden gradually by decreasing borrowed funds and by enhancing the owner’s fund. For this purpose companies should enlarge their equity share capital by issuing new equity shares. There has been too much of government interference in policy and day-to-day working and decisions.This leads to delays in decision-making. This should be abolished. There is no incentive to the employees to perform better. Also there is no accountability because no one is held responsible for a failure in achieving targets for this kind of problem responsibility centre should be created. Improper planning and delays in implementation of projects lead to rise in their cost. S o properly planning should be made. To regularize and optimize the use of cash balance proper techniques may be adopted for planning and control of cash. 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Information about this Article Peer-review ratings (from 2 reviews, where a score of 100 represents the ‘average’ level): Originality = 175. 00, importance = 162. 50, overall quality = 162. 50 This Article was published on 14th March, 2012 at 18:41:24 and has been viewed 2635 times. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2. 5 License. The full citation for this Article is: Kakkad, R. (2012). Comparative Financial statement Analysis & Innovation in Private sector Pharmaceutical Companies in India-An empirical Analysis. PHILICA. COM Article number 318.\r\n'