Wednesday, January 29, 2020

CSS Styles and Web Design Essay Example for Free

CSS Styles and Web Design Essay Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) defines how HTML elements are to be displayed and in-short referred as CSS. It controls the appearance of multiple HTML pages by just including one single external style sheet. For storing external style sheets CSS files (â€Å". css† extension) are used. CSS-based layouts along with table based layouts are used to manage the formatting of a web site. Cascading style sheets (CSS) make it easy to manage the formatting of a web site and it can be used to control the appearance of objects on a page or throughout a site. It can be designed and redesigned, and can control the formatting of hundreds of pages, including fonts, link colors, margin settings and background images. It is widely supported by modern browsers and allows flexibility in positioning. CSS based layouts Keeps the HTML/text ratio at a low level thus decreasing load time and Allows the display of main content first while the graphics load afterwards. CSS also avoid accessibility issues raised by table cells and the content flows logically without disruption. The three ways by which style can be added in HTML document are: 1. External style sheet 2. Internal style sheet (inside the head tag) 3. Inline style (inside an HTML element) In terms of priority when HTML document displays, it first looks for Inline style, than for internal style sheet (inside the head tag) and at last include External style sheet which is CSS. External style sheet (CSS) enables developer to change the appearance and layout of all the pages in their WebPages by just editing one single CSS file. Internal (embedded) style sheets are useful for managing single HTML page in which it is included and inline style sheet are used for managing some special formatting within the webpage. The Evolution of HTML Standards The evolution of HTML standards started from 1989, when Tim Berners-Lee invented the Web with HTML as its publishing language. In September 1991, Open discussion about HTML across the Internet begins. In 1992, HTML 1. 0 the first release of HTML to the world, was taken from Tim-Berners Lee original proposal. At this time not many people were involved in website creation and the language was very limited. In May 1994, HTML+ having some physical layout was shown at the first World Wide Web conference (W3C) that was held in Geneva. In July 1994, HTML specification for HTML 2. 0 was released. It included everything from HTML 1. 0 and added a few new features and defined many core HTML features for the first time. It was HTML standard until January 1997. In March 1995, HTML 3. 0 published as an Internet Draft by a HTML working group, led by Dave Raggett. In 1996, HTML 3. 2 (wilbur) came after the end of the Browser Wars and became the official standard in January 1997. It had included the tags introduced by Netscape and Microsoft during Browser Wars. In December 1997, HTML 4. 0 (cougar) introduced with HTML’s new supporting presentational language, cascading style sheets and became the official standard in April 1998. HTML 4. 0 was revised and corrected and later introduced as HTML 4. 01 in 1999. In January 2000, XHTML 1. 0, an XML version of HTML 4. 01, became joint standards along with HTML 4. 01. In XHTML 1. 0, there are not many new or deprecated tags and attributes but it was changed with a view of increased accessibility and functionality and a new set of coding rules. In 2001, XHTML 1. 1 with some modularization came. In 2002, XHTML 2. 0, which is more simplified and generalized standards, came into effect for WebPages. References: CSS Tutorial available at http://www. w3schools. com/css/css_intro. asp accessed on 27 July 2007. Web Development Series: formatting content, January 4, 2007 retrieved on 27 July 2007 from http://academictech. doit. wisc. edu/ORFI/wds/index. htm Moller, A. Schwartzbach, M. L. 2006. HTML and Web Pages: An Introduction to XML and Web Technologies, Addison-Wesley. Retrieved on 27 July 2007 from http://www. brics. dk/ixwt/html. pdf Shannon, R (n. d. ). The History of HTML Retrieved on 27 July 2007 from http://www. yourhtmlsource. com/starthere/historyofhtml. html http://www. w3. org/ accessed on 27 July 2007.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Flight 93 :: essays papers

Flight 93 Flight 93, the flight that crashed near some fields in the outskirts of Pennsylvania. But what was it doing there? What caused the plane to miss its target and crash? These answers may soon be revealed when detectives can finally examine the planes black box, found just recently. Many answers however can be found through other pieces of info that have come up along the way during the investigations. For instance, the multiple calls made to family members as well as 911 from the frantic passengers. Mark Bingham for instance called 911, as well as his mom telling her he loved her and that the plane was being hijacked. Another man called 911 screaming that they were being hijacked and that he heard some sort of explosion and saw white smoke coming from the plane. Then there was Tom Burnett, who called his wife saying the hijackers had already stabbed to death one passenger and that he intended to do something about it. A Jeremy Glick called his relatives saying the same, that he and some other passengers were intending to fight the hijackers. These calls brought up the thought that perhaps some passengers on board had fought the hijackers, keeping them from controlling the plane, and sending it crashing to the ground. Another theory is that the pilot, Jason Dahl might have purposefully crashed the plane to prevent the hijackers from taking it over. Or perhaps that Dahl had cut off the planes fuel with out the hijackers being aware. It was said that the plane looked like it went straight down; and that the plane had almost completely disintegrated on impact leaving a hole several feet deep. Another theory was that perhaps the U.S. Military had shot down flight 93 as to prevent it from taking aim at another important government building. But these claims have been sharply denied by Pentagon officials. The FBI says to the question if it has been ruled out or not that it is â€Å"kind of a loaded question.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Introduction to Internet Addiction

Introduction to Internet Addiction Ten years ago, the only people who spent a majority of their leisure time on the computer were paid members of the technology industry. Today, however, surfing the Web has become a pastime as social and marketable as bar hopping or going to the movies. As the web has become a part of mainstream life, some mental health professionals have noted that a percentage of people using the web do so in a compulsive and out-of-control manner.In one extreme (1997)  Cincinnati case, unemployed mother Sandra Hacker allegedly spent over 12 hours a day secluded from her three young and neglected children while she surfed the Web. For better or for worse, this phenomena of compulsive Internet use has been termed ‘Internet Addiction' based on its superficial similarity to common addictions such as smoking, drinking, and gambling. Internet Addiction has even been championed as an actual disorder, notably by psychologists Kimberly Young, Ph. D and David Greenf ield, Ph. D.. However, at this time the true nature of Internet Addiction is not yet determined.In a true addiction, a person becomes compulsively dependent upon a particular kind of stimulation to the point where obtaining a steady supply of that stimulation becomes the sole and central focus of their lives. The addict increasingly neglects his work duties, relationships and ultimately even his health in his drive to remain stimulated. In some cases of addiction (such as addiction to alcohol or to heroin), a phenomenon known as tolerance occurs, wherein more and more stimulation is required to produce the same pleasurable effect.A related phenomena, withdrawal, can also occur, wherein the addicted person comes to be dependent upon their source of stimulation and experiences dramatically unpleasant (and even potentially lethal — as can be the case with alcohol) reactions when he goes without it. Sources of addictive stimulation can be chemical (as is the case with addictive d rugs such as alcohol, cocaine, nicotine and heroin), sensual (as in sex) or even informational (as in gambling or workaholism).What all sources of addictive stimulation have in common is that they provoke a strong, usually positive (at first) reaction in the potential addict, who then seeks out the source of that stimulation so as to obtain that feeling on a regular basis. While many people like to engage in sexual relations, or gamble, or have the occasionally drink because of the pleasure to be had, clearly not all people who do so are addicts. Rather, the term ddiction only applies when someone's stimulation seeking gets to the point where it starts interfering with their ability to function normally and non-neglectfully at work and in relationships. Mental health professionals are split as to whether or not Internet addiction is real. No one disputes that some people use the Internet in a compulsive manner even to a point where it interferes with their their ability to function at work and in social relationships. What is disputed is whether people can become addicted to the Internet itself, or rather to the stimulation and information that the web provides.The controversy surrounding Internet Addiction is precisely whether people become addicted to the net itself, or to the stimulation to be had via the net (such as online gambling, pornography or even simple communication with others via chat and bulletin boards). Some psychologists do not believe in addiction to the Internet itself, but rather in addiction to stimulation that the Internet provides. They suggests that new Internet users often show an initial infatuation with the novelty of the Web, but eventually lose interest and decrease their time spent online back to a normal, healthy amount.Those users who do go on to show compulsive Internet utilization, for the most part become compulsive only with regard to particular types of information to be had online, most often gambling, pornography, chat r oom or shopping sites. This is not an addiction to the Internet itself, but rather to risk-taking, sex, socializing or shopping. In essence then, the chief addictive characteristic of the Internet is its ability to enable instant and relatively anonymous social stimulation. Addicted† Internet users are addicted to a favored kind of social stimulation and not to the Internet itself, although it is also true that the Internet has made it vastly easier and more convenient for someone to develop such a compulsion. Because the Internet is used by many people as a normal part of their career or education, knowing how to separate excessive from normal use becomes difficult and cannot be accomplished using simple measures such as amount of time spent online in a given period. Most fundamental in differentiating normal from problem Internet use is the experience of compulsion to use the net.Normal users, no matter how heavy their usage, do not  need  to get online and do not neglec t their occupational duties or their relationships with family and friends to get online. Help for Internet related addiction is available from multiple sources. Anyone concerned about serious problem Internet usage should consider consulting with a local licensed psychologist, social worker or counselor, specifically one with experience treating addictions. Cognitive therapy based approaches are recommendable due to their systematic and direct focus on reducing problem use and preventing relapse, and the strong scientific support for the approach.Marital and or family therapy approaches may be useful as well when an individual's Internet Addiction is affecting their larger family system (such as might be the case when a husband uses Internet-based pornography as his sole sexual outlet, leaving his wife frozen out). More than a few books and self-help resources (such as audio tape sets) are also available for those who want to educate themselves on the problem. Our Internet Addictio n Treatment article provides further detail.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Literature Is Not Only What We Read, Reflecting On The

Literature is not only what we read, reflecting on the context in which it is written in. The role of value of judgement in the reading of literature is almost part of the world, involving systems of valuations between literary texts and authors. Value of judgement is between the rightness and wrongness of something or someone in context with the utility of importance. The value of judgement in the reading of literature is much more complicated, pointing out the literary text when explaining its evaluation (peer, 2008). When defining the value of judgement were estimating the subjective of the worth, quality, goodness or evil of something or someone, this includes literature readings. (†¦show more content†¦As said on page 143 ‘’value-judgements are founded on the study of literature; the study of literature can never be founded on the value-judgement’’ (Olsen pg.143). In the eighteenth century l iterature was known to do more than exemplify certain social principles, it was seen as the vital tool for the deeper entrenchment and wider distribution (Eagleton, 1983, pg15). When reading literature it’s not just a matter of the experiences being felt, nor is it the personal responses or the uniqueness of the imagination (Eagleton, 1983, pg.15-16). The value of judgement is a principle of discourse, throwing around critical assumptions about the written production of the literary text. The roles of value of judgement in the text literary criticism and philosophy by Leavis describes how literary criticism and philosophy come across distinct and show how they are a different form of discipline (Leavis, pg.212). The value-judgement is challenged in the way that some may see it as a false idea of the procedure. The ideal critic is the ideal reader when it comes down to judgement (Leavis, pg.212). Poetry is concrete, with the words inviting us to ‘think about’ then judge and ‘feel into’ to become, understanding the complexing involvement given by the words (Leavis, pg. 212-213). A critic penetrates the perception of the significance in relation to the judgement and the value (Leavis pg.213). Poetry is related to actuality, it’s written in relation to life. Leavis whoseShow MoreRelatedDystopian Societies And Progression Towards Equality Essay1596 Words   |  7 Pagesproblems, which evolved his rise to power. Amid Hitler’s ascent to Fuhrer, he initiated several laws and social reforms, which had a profound impact on the German people and citizens in surrounding countries. By examining and reflecting on the different types of dystopian literature we have the capability to be proactive in educating people about dystopian societies and progression toward equality. 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But Walden is so much more than the story of one man’s retreat into the woods to ‘transact some private business.’ Thoreau’s disarming directness and naturalistic style aside, Walden not an incidental text. WithRead MoreIgbo Culture : The Igbo People1643 Words   |  7 Pagesthe proverb says, When a man says yes, his Chi says yes also (Achebe 19). My Ideas: The Igbo people refer their Chis their own personal god. A man should trust his own gut and mind in the Igbo society and they know that his Chi will agree with what he do. This is also saying that men should be responsible for their actions because ofthe fact that their Chi will always agree with them and cannot change their mind. Cleanliness Quote: The Igbo people thought of cleaniness as godly saying,