Wednesday, July 31, 2019

John Locke: Property Rights Essay

Perhaps one of, if not the, most historically influential political thinkers of the western world was John Locke. John Locke, the man who initiated what is now known as British Empiricism, is also considered highly influential in establishing grounds, theoretically at least, for the constitution of the United States of America. The basis for understanding Locke is that he sees all people as having natural God given rights. As God’s creations, this denotes a certain equality, at least in an abstract sense. This religious back drop acts as a the foundation for all of Locke’s theories, including his theories of individuality, private property, and the state. The reader will be shown how and why people have a natural right to property and the impact this has on the sovereign, as well as the extent of this impact. Locke was a micro based ideologist. He believed that humans were autonomous individuals who, although lived in a social setting, could not be articulated as a herd or social animal. Locke believed person to stand for, â€Å"†¦a thinking, intelligent being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places, which it only does by that consciousness which is inseparable from thinking. † This ability to reflect, think, and reason intelligibly is one of the many gifts from God and is that gift which separates us from the realm of the beast. The ability to reason and reflect, although universal, acts as an explanation for individuality. All reason and reflection is based on personal experience and reference. Personal experience must be completely individual as no one can experience anything quite the same as another. This leads to determining why Locke theorized that all humans, speaking patriarchially with respect to the time â€Å"why all men,† have a natural right to property. Every man is a creation of God’s, and as such is endowed with certain individual abilities and characteristics as gifts from God. Not being able to know God’s exact wishes for man, Locke believed that all men have an obligation to develop and caress these gifts. In essence, each man was in charge of his own body and what was done with his body. Of course, for Locke, each man would do the reasonable thing and develop his natural skills and potentials to the best of his abilities, in the service of God. The belief in God given abilities and the obligations that follow are not totally deterministic. Man, endowed with reason, could choose not to develop these abilities. Having the ability to choose the development of his potential, each man is responsible for that potential and consequently is responsible for his own body. The development, or lack therein, is a consequence of individual motivation and is manifested through labor. In keeping with the theory of one’s body is one’s own, a man’s property can be explained in terms of the quantifying forces of his labors. Physical labor or exercisation of his mind, to produce fruits for this person’s labor, is then his own property. Locke believed that one did not need the consent of a sovereign, as far as property was concerned, because it is the melding of labor and nature that makes anything owned. Yolton articulates this when he states, â€Å"(b)y mixing my work, my energy with some object, (nature), I particulise that object, it’s commonness becomes particular† Locke believed that as long as there was plenty for others, consent was pointless, irrelevant and would merely be an overzealous exercision of power. Pointless because as long as there was more for others in the common store, one was not infringing on another’s natural rights. Irrelevant because property production or the use of labor was completely individualistic and one should not be able to control another’s labor as it is an infringement on their natural rights. There are however limits, as far as property and labor are concerned. One limit is that of non destruction. God did not create anything for man to destroy. The amount produced by any man should be kept in check by his level of destruction. For example, there is a big difference between the cutting of one or a few trees and the harvesting of an entire forest. Yolton explicates this by stating that, â€Å"†¦ specific rights comes in conjunction with this restriction. Since ? Nothing was made by God for Man to spoil or destroy,’ the property making function of man’s activities ought to be curbed at the point of spoilage. If my acquisition spoils, I offend against the law of nature, since I have, in the beginning, ? no Right, further than’ my use. What is useful and is used has value and the person who uses them a right to them. The same rules are cited for land as for the produce of land. † The making of currency as an unspoilable property and medium for exchange seems to have by-passed this limit all together. Inequality becomes rampant and as such an authority is needed to protect a man’s property and the social peace. With the advent of money as unspoilable property, certain inequalities amongst men would develop. Those with less start to feel cheated and used. This is very dangerous for those with more, because with these inequalities, comes the danger of theft, or injury to property or body. It is for this reason that people enter into a social contract and appoint a soveriegn. The sovereign has the ability to protect those whose property is in danger, and will do so through the passing and enforcing of laws. In this way not only is a man’s property protected, but a state of peace is maintained as well. Locke not only believed in one individual’s right to property, but every individual’s right to property. Since every person is a creation of God’s, and it must be God’s wish that we serve him through the abilities that he’s given us, to interfere with a man and his labor, or the consequence of his labor, that is, his property, would be to interfere with God’s wishes. It is here that we begin to see the limits of men as well as the limits of the soveriegn. After all, how anyone interfere with the wishes of God? Locke believed that the power for social control must come from the sovereign. This sovereign is responsible to the will of the people, but has a protective authority, governing both over land and people. Locke believed that if a body of people, that is a community of people, chose to live and interrelate amongst each other, they must choose to live by a greater force, that is they must enter into a social contract. This force was the power of the majority manifested through the creation of a sovereign. Problems can arise, when individuals cannot agree. For this reason there must be a ruler and government to decide disagreements, make and enforce laws, and govern man. The enforcement of rules is not as absolute as it may sound. Even with the existence of a limited monarchy, man retains his individual and God given rights. As such, the sovereign, had no right to acquire or take away the property of another. If he did so he would be going against, God, the people, and all that is natural. The extent of the services of the existing sovereign is to govern over, protect, and enforce the laws of the people. Locke believed that the role of the sovereign and his authority is in serving the people and that there must not be parental, that is absolute authority. Yolton explains this like so, â€Å"If royal authority is derived from parental authority †¦ there would be as many kings as fathers†¦ from parental power it necessarily follows either that that all fathers have royal authority – in which case a contradiction arises – no one has royal authority. † In this way Locke is seen as a man who wants to limit the power of the sovereign over the individual. Locke believed that the sovereign, created out of the need for the protection of individual rights, that is, out of the need for protection of the privacy of property, could not manifest itself publicly through excessive social control. Perhaps Locke’s idea is better explained this way. â€Å"From privacy of possession, publicity of sovereignty does not follow†¦ `no Man could ever have a just Power over the life of another, by Right of property in Land or possessions'† This, of course, would include the man of sovereignty and the men of government. Property sets the limit of sovereignty, in that no man has just power over another or another’s property. This right comes directly from God, because it is a God given right that a man should gain property through labor. This also sets the tone of the role of government, that of servitude instead of command. Locke believed that civil society existed to free individuals from the insecurity of the state of nature. He thought that men united voluntarily in a concerted effort of preserving and protecting life, liberty, and estate. Here again we see the importance of property. Government within limits can work beneficially for all of man kind. This means that a sovereign would be necessary for the preservation of lives, the promotion of freedom, and the protection of estate. Locke is quite adamant about the preservation of individual freedom which Aaron describes as â€Å"need(ing) to be jealously preserved. † This right to the property produced through labor is an inalienable right that each and every individual has. Even the soveriegn has no right to interfere with or take away a man’s property. This is the true limit of any man or governing body. Locke favored a limited monarchy. This is an elected legislative assembly and a monarch that have the power to direct the commonwealth to preserve the community and it’s members and their rights. Locke believed that people were the absolute sovereign, and that if the appointed sovereign abused his authority the people would have the right to dissolve the government. This right of the people reinforces the limitations of the sovereign, while enforcing the accountability of the sovereign. It is in this sense that the community or the aggregation of individuality, retains power over the sovereign and in essence limits it’s power. This is the extent of the limitation of authority of the sovereign. The sovereign is a servant of the people, that has limited power only as long as the majority allows it to have power. It was Locke’s intent that the state was made for the individual and that the sovereign be used as a protective instrument for the good of the individual. Locke’s ideas of property are based on God given rights. Each person has been given a body, with certain abilities and potentials, to use by God. The use of this body is called labor and its product is called property. Since everyone has a body and a level of potential everyone is capable of producing property. The purpose of the sovereign is to protect the individuals right to property and their property. The sovereign is limited in it’s power and authority and does not have the right to take or interfere with any man’s property, since to do so would be an interference with the right’s of man as given by God. It was Locke’s hope that with such an ideology behind a people and their government that they might attain and retain Locke’s version of the good life, that is life, liberty, and most importantly estate. Bibliography: Aaron, Richard, John Locke, Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1963. Bowie, James, Twenty Questions: An Introduction to Philosophy, MacMillan Publishing, New York, 1964. Locke, John, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Oxford University Press, London, 1975. Magill, Frank, Masterpieces of World Philosophy, Harper and Row, New York, 1961. O’Connor, D. J. , John Locke, Pelican Books, London, 1952. Squadrito, Kathleen, Locke’s Theory of Sensitive Knowledge, University Press of America, Washington, 1978. Yolton, J. W. , Locke and the Compass of Human Understanding, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1970.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Though Melville’s Moby Dick

Though Melville’s â€Å"Moby Dick† has been amply explicated as an allegorical novel engaged in metaphysical and philosophical themes, the richness and density of Melville’s narrative scope in Moby Dick demands close scrutiny, not only for its forthright allegorical connotations, but also for its arcane and esoteric connotations, which provide a variety of meta-fictional comments and divulgences regarding the novel’s radically experimental narrative form.  Ã‚   â€Å"As almost anyone who has ever looked closely into Melville's novel knows, Moby-Dick is an incredibly rich and complex work with as intricate a set of symbols, image patterns, and motifs as is to be found in a work of literature anywhere in the world.† (Sten 5) Particularly peculiar to many readers of â€Å"Moby Dick† are the generous discourses on cetology and whaling included in the novel. â€Å"An abrupt change of direction in Moby-Dick takes place at the thirty-second chapter. From the sharp, swift description of New Bedford and Nantucket and from the narrative speed of the adventures of the seaport, we move suddenly into bibliographical considerations of a pseudo-scholarly nature.† (Vincent 121) Though the cetological references in â€Å"Moby Dick† may, at first appear to be naggingly incongruous with the hitherto established adventure-tragedy, as we will see in the following discussion, the narrative form and structure of â€Å"Moby Dick† is, in fact, can be shown to comprise a literary facsimile of the cetological science as Melville understood it in his time-period. While it would be misleadingly simple to describe the narrative form of â€Å"Moby Dick† as â€Å"a whale,† this description, with slight modification, can be justified by a close reading of the novel and by an inquiry into the compositional ideas and influences that inspired Melville during the novel’s composition.   The aforementioned modification is this: that the narrative form of â€Å"Moby Dick† is constructed to evoke the anatomical composition of cetaceans insofar as the Moby Dick â€Å"Great White Whale† comprises the central allegorical symbol in the novel, and, therefore, also symbolizes the creative urge of the artist from initial inspiration to final completion: â€Å"the extracts are the epic material–â€Å"fragmentary, scattered, loosely related, sometimes contradictory†Ã¢â‚¬â€œout of which Melville's epic poetry was made.   (Sten 4) It is essential that â€Å"Moby Dick† be regarded as possessing a solid, harmonious structure, despite the initial oddness and experimentalism of its surface level appearance. Nowhere is there â€Å"waste in Moby-Dick; every concrete detail serves a double and triple purpose[†¦] No detail is unleavened[†¦]   even such a chapter as â€Å"The Specksynder,† at first seemingly irrelevant, contributes to the designed effect of the whole novel. (Vincent 125) To understand the utter necessity of Melville’s inclusion of detailed cetological material in â€Å"Moby Dick† it is useful to appraise some of the immediate influences on his thought and artistic philosophy during the time of the novel’s initial composition and extensive revisions. As is well known, two of the most profound influences on Melville during the composition of â€Å"Moby Dick† were William Shakespeare and Nathaniel Hawthorne. Despite the gulf of centuries between these two writers, both were recent discoveries for Melville at the time of his writing â€Å"Moby Dick.† Foremost among Melville’s appreciations for each of these writers was his conviction that each of them had accomplished a confrontation with endemic evil in their works. â€Å"To understand the power of blackness at work in Melville's imagination, we need to note that even while he was composing Moby-Dick, this omnivorous reader, the novelist, was discovering the plays of Shakespeare, especially King Lear, {†¦} and the allegorical fiction of Nathaniel Hawthorne. (Tuttleton) Shakespeare’s influence on Melville exerts itself in the inclusion of actual playscript in the course of the novel, frequent asides and soliloquies, and most profoundly, on the tragic scope and figure of Captain Ahab. Hawthorne’s influence claims a much stronger relationship to the novel’s symbolic and allegorical structures. In fact, Hawthorne’s own pioneering allegorical techniques may have provided the single most influential power on Melville’s conception of â€Å"Moby Dick.† If Hawthorne had shown Melville that â€Å"one American was expressively aware of the evil at the core of life,: he had also provided a narrative strategy suitable for Melville’s own literary confrontation with evil, â€Å"a perception toward which Melville had been groping for seven years of authorship and of self-scrutiny, but which he had not completely realized nor dared to disclose.† (Vincent 37) This narrative strategy relied most heavily on Hawthorne’s allegorical techniques. By investing traditional elements of storytelling with deeper, more symbolically complex meanings, Hawthorne achieved an idiom which is both moralistic and confessional in nature. An example of Hawthorne’s allegorical technique is his novel â€Å"The Scarlet Letter.† In this novel, a struggle between spiritual faith and evil temptation comprises a central theme.† This struggle is represented allegorically in the story by a careful employment of symbolism, character development, and plotting. Lacking an established literary idiom which was wide enough to directly confront the duality of his own ambiguous feelings toward Puritanism and human morality, Hawthorne developed an intricate set of symbols and allegorical references   simultaneously conceal and explicate the confessional elements of the story. Individual objects, characters, and elements of the story thus function in â€Å"dual† roles, providing, so to speak, overt and covert information. In constructing a self-sustaining iconography within the confines of a short story, Hawthorne was obliged to lean somewhat on the commonly accepted symbolism of certain objects, places, and characteristics. The allegorical method, by articulating thematic ideas which challenge â€Å"cut and dried† explanations of such profound realities as faith, morality, innocence, and the nature of good and evil, allowed Hawthorne to delve into issues of the utmost personal profundity, but to express them within a language and symbolic structure that anyone could understand. By reaching through his own personal doubt, guilt, and religious ambivalence to find expression for the irony and injustice of Puritanical dogma, Hawthorne was able to embrace ambiguity, rather than stolid religious fervor, as a moral and spiritual reality. By using the symbolic resonances of everyday objects, places, and people in his fiction, Hawthorne was able to show the duality – the good and evil – in a ll things, and in all people, thus reconciling the sheer division of good and evil as represented by the edicts of his (and America’s) Puritanical heritage. Melville’s admiration for Hawthorne’s successful development of a narrative form capable of expressing profound spiritual and philosophical themes of inspired him to elevate the first draft of his whaling adventure story, which hitherto had closely resembled his popular â€Å"travelogue† writings, such as â€Å"Typee.†Ã‚   Moby-Dick took six years to complete. â€Å" It was not until a signally successful reputation had been established that Melville was ready, as he put it, to â€Å"turn blubber into poetry.† (Vincent 15) What Melville intended was to craft his erstwhile adventure story, along with his comprehensive notes and observations and researches into cetology and whaling into an allegorical novel on par with what he esteemed Hawthorne to have done in his own novels and short stories. Upon completion of â€Å"Moby Dick† Melville made his artistic debt to Hawthorne quite clear. â€Å"The godfather of Moby-Dick was guaranteed additional fame when Melville gratefully dedicated his whaling epic to Hawthorne â€Å"In Token of my Admiration for his Genius.†Ã¢â‚¬  (Vincent 39) Melville’s most obvious gesture toward Hawthorne-inspired allegory is, of course, the development of Moby Dick himself: the whale as the pervading, all-important and central symbol of the novel. This central symbol connects deeply with the archetypal symbolism of the ocean, representing form emerging from watery chaos or the primeval unconscious: â€Å"In Moby-Dick this inner realm is of course represented by the sea, a universal image of the unconscious, where all the monsters and helping figures of childhood are to be found, along with the many talents and other powers that lie dormant within every adult. Chief among these, in Ishmael's case, is the complicated image of the Whale itself, which is all these things and more and also serves as the â€Å"herald† that calls him to his adventure. (Sten 7) Regarded in this light, the cetological details of â€Å"Moby Dick† acquire an additional power and connotative dimensions, as the initial â€Å"call to adventure† and the primary form which rises from the sea of the unconscious, the whale symbol stands not only for the complex physical universe (form) but also as the explicative symbol for the narrative construction of the novel itself. â€Å" The cetological center recognizes the truth of Thoreau's dictum: â€Å"we are enabled to apprehend at all what is sublime and noble only by the perpetual instilling and drenching of the reality that surrounds us.† [†¦] The cetological center of Moby-Dick is the keel to Melville's  artistic craft.† (Vincent 122)  Ã‚   Even as technical descriptions of the whale’s anatomies are given in the novel, the non-scientific, anecdotal experiences of whales at sea as narrated by Ishmael, forward the marriage of whale-symbolism to the novel’s narrative form. Upon his discourse of the â€Å"spirit-spout,† Ishmael remarks: â€Å"advancing still further and further in our van, this solitary jet seemed forever alluring us on.† This relates to the lure of inspiration, of the need for self-expression, for the first intimations of the ensuing artistic expression. The signal-spout of inspiration leads the artist (writer) toward his form. But it is first, formless: simply a haze of imaginative impulse and intuition: a signal on the horizon.   Ishmael further notes that â€Å"that unnearable spout was cast by one self-same whale, and that whale, Moby Dick.† This latter connotation indicates that inspiration flows form the eventual harmonious conclusion; that is urge and objective are one, but that the objective form is also merged tightly with theme. As Ishmael gains a closer, more intimate apprehension of whales, the development of his character and spiritual insight are correspondingly elevated. The more detailed are the cetological experiences and catalogues, the more wholly expressive and self-possessed and sure becomes Ishmael. â€Å"Moby-Dick is, among other things, an encyclopedia of cetological lore having to do with every aspect of the whale–the scientific, zoological, oceanographic, mythic, and philological. And it recounts Ishmael's slow recovery from melancholia{†¦} These thematic elements are interspersed with chapters detailing Captain Ahab's pursuit of the white whale† (Tuttleton). Still deeper correspondences between the cetological material and Melville’s narrative form are established in Ishmael’s descriptions of the whales â€Å"blubber† and â€Å"skin† which he posits as being indistinguishable. This is reflected in the narrative structure of â€Å"Moby Dick† where it is equally as difficult to apprehend where the â€Å"skin† (overt theme and storyline) of the novel ends and the â€Å"blubber† (cetological and whaling discourses and catalogues) begin. Melville makes it perfectly clear that the â€Å"blubber† is an as indispensable part of his novel as it is for the whale’s body. â€Å"For the whale is indeed wrapt up in his blubber as in a real blanket or counterpane; or, still better, an Indian poncho slipt over his head;†therefore, too, is the expository material, the â€Å"blubber† of the novel wrapped around its central, allegorical aspects. The realism of the cetological details in â€Å"Moby Dick† is impressive. Many critics account it as a reliable source as any known from Melville’s time-period on cetology or whaling. This realism provides a concrete grounding for the novel’s adventure and theatrical demonstrations, as well as for the highly concentrated symbolism that forwards Melville’s powerful themes. Again, like a whale, Melville’s narrative form is massive and sprawling, but capable of dynamic flow and incredible speed. Seen in this regard, the cetological materials are not only deeply necessary to give the novel â€Å"ballast;† they also provide for its eventual â€Å"sounding† or ability to probe great depth of theme and profundity. The detailed cetological aspects of â€Å"Moby Dick† may, indeed, prevent the reader from an easy, and immediate grasp of the novel’s â€Å"meaning† or even its astounding climax. Just as the whale’s hump is believed by Ishmael to conceal the whale’s â€Å"true brain† while the more easily accessed â€Å"brain† know to whalers is merely a know of nerves, the secret â€Å"core† of â€Å"Moby Dick† can only be pursued with patience and close, deep â€Å"cutting†due to the organic and harmonious nature of its narrative form. By keeping in mind the previously discussed aspects of the relationship between â€Å"Moby Dick’s† comprehensive cetological materials and their symbolic relationship to the novel itself, its form and themes, Ishmael, while discoursing on the  desirability of whale meat as fit food for humans, offers an ironic gesture toward the novel’s probable audiences. â€Å"But what further depreciates the whale as a civilized dish, is his exceeding richness. He is the great prize ox of the sea, too fat to be delicately good.† The radically experimental form of â€Å"Moby Dick† is a successful form which owes a debt to its conception to the allegorical techniques of Nathaniel Hawthorne. By building on Hawthorne’s idiom, Melville achieved a rigorously complex, but exactly realized idiom, one which still challenges the sensibilities and sensitivities of readers and critics to this day. Works Cited Sten, Christopher. Sounding the Whale: Moby-Dick as Epic Novel. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1996. Tuttleton, James W. â€Å"The Character of Captain Ahab in Melville's ‘Moby Dick.'.† World and I Feb. 1998: 290+. Vincent, Howard P. The Trying-Out of Moby-Dick. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1949.         

Monday, July 29, 2019

Role of HR and Social Media Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Role of HR and Social Media - Assignment Example Social media helps managers understand workers’ problems so that they can address at least what they can to optimize workers’ chances of retention. Social media helps managers clearly convey their policies regarding work ethics without the constraints of time and distance. Social media helps managers improve workers’ productivity by having them stay connected 24/7. The improved flow of communication and information at all levels across the organization also helps improve the workers’ productivity. Using such programs as Skype, managers can conduct meetings with the workers without having to make them spare some precious time from work to come to the meeting room. Many companies like Cisco have the trend to befriend the workers, peers, managers, and bosses at the social media websites like Facebook and Twitter. â€Å"Seven of 10 employees have â€Å"friended† their managers and coworkers on Facebook† (Gaskell). This helps them foster better re lations with one another and know one another

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Pricing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Pricing - Research Paper Example This discussion stresses that pricing features are manufacturing cost, place, current market situation, and value of manufactured goods. Pricing is considered as a significant factor in the economic pricing allotment theory. Pricing is an elementary factor for generating finance besides the troll to help optimization of profit. It is also considered as the essential Ps of the marketing mix, alone with the other three characteristics of product, promotion, and place. Price is the single â€Å"income creating† component along with the four Ps which are only the sources of cost.According to the report findings  pricing is a repeated physical process which has a direct bearing or sale orders. Aspects such as a predetermined amount, mass break, backing or sales movement, precise dealer quote, price existing on entry, consignment or charge date, mixture of numerous instructions or lines etc will also influence pricing decisions. Computerized system necessitate extra complex and pe rpetuation but may avoid pricing errors. The requirements of customers can be transformed into demand only if the consumer has the readiness and capability to acquire the product and it comes with a reasonable price. Thus price is extremely significant in marketing.  There are various methods to price the goods manufactured. Launching a pricing policy is an action that must be finished before established merchandise expansion.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Interviewing a relative or friend about managerial accounting Essay - 1

Interviewing a relative or friend about managerial accounting techniques used in their work and writing a summary of the interview - Essay Example I took the opportunity to go to Kim’s company since I did not want to interview him at home. I met his secretary who allowed me to go and see him. I wanted our conversation to be as formal as possible since I had interacted with him on other platforms. After some orientation on the operations of the company, I engaged Kim with questions. Firstly, I focused on understanding the costing systems in the company. Kim was aware that there was a cost accounting system that the company used though he did not know precisely what is was called. However, he was quite clear that the overall cost of production required to be considered in the resource management. Since the company does not have many operations, Kim said that they have simplified financial control system to ensure that operations are run efficiently. At Km’s company, the review of the costing systems is usually done after every one year citing issues of inflation and changing economic patterns. Being a senior manager, Kim has a role in financial decision making in the organization. The senior management usually meets weekly to deliberate on the company operations, trends, acquisitions among other issues. The company uses the break-even analysis in making its financial decisions. This ensures that the company is capable of getting to know its position relative to its profitability. Kim plays a major role in decision-making. As a senior manager, he has a vote in facilitating a consensus on the way the resources in the company are to be spent. In addition, he has the role of ensuring that his department ‘is allocated the resources that are required. In the management, he has the role to defend his projected expenditures as well as giving financial reports on the operations within the department. Kim tells me that the organization is very keen on its budgets. The budgets are

Friday, July 26, 2019

5 Questions Integrated Marketing Communications Essay

5 Questions Integrated Marketing Communications - Essay Example Also, a non-human character is more likely to attract attention of the watcher in the first place! The identification of a human with an animal is a common literary theme and the relationships with animals are used to symbolize key passages in a child’s life like integration into the society upon saving an animal from a bad situation (Lerner, Kalof, 1999). The animal double also portrays a character’s abuse of animals as the result of abuse he or she has experienced. Animals are also symbolized as loved one, as savior, as threat, as a tool, as victim, as sex object, and as an object of wonder. Animal characters may make serious products like insurance less drab and at the same time add humor and lightheartedness to otherwise common product (Inglessis, McGavock & Korzenny, 2007). Use of non-human character may not be appropriate for every category but it positions the product and differentiates it from competitors. 2. Innovation is essential to convert the dream to into a marketable product. Innovation directs the leader to set challenging targets (Zien & Buckler, 1997). If marketing personnel are involved, the innovation will respond to either user needs or to competition (Moenaert & Souder, 1990). Innovative products have been found to be successful if marketing personnel are involved than those developed by the research and development department or the top management. Marketing communications theory which suggests that it is not enough to listen to the customer, it is essential to understand the customer (Olorunniwo, Hsu & Udo). If the product uses some new technology demand is definite to be created (Ettlie & Subramaniam, 2004). Every step has to be integrated and creating a demand would require a stepwise process involving information acquisition activities and evaluation points. Once the user needs have been identified it would be easier to create demand. The company should also be prepared to face environments that

Correctional Institution, Criminology major Essay

Correctional Institution, Criminology major - Essay Example Among them is â€Å"protection from cruel and unusual punishment, including sexual harassment and other sex crimes† (Jacobson 118). To discourage sexual abuse in a prison facility, a correctional manager could take some steps by efficiently using the limited resources at their disposal which may include increasing time deducted on sentences for good behavior. This would encourage prisoners to adhere to prison rules with the hope of early release. The prison manager should practice wise deployment of staff taking in consideration the vulnerable locations and high risk times. Rape is a violent crime, therefore, stopping violent activities reduces chances of rape occurring. A correctional manager should endeavor to stop prison gang membership, activity or recruitment. These gangs encourage violent behaviors and operate on codes of silence. The correctional manager should also develop effective institutional policies and processes. These should provide guidelines on what is to be done in case abuse is reported, suspected, found happening or proven. These policies and procedures should instruct on how to deal with of fenders and victims. They should guarantee swift action and protection for the victim. The correctional manager should also encourage programs that prepare prisoners to live a contributing and law-abiding life after incarceration. These programs may incorporate activities that put the prisoners in controlled contact with the free world. This gives them a hint of free life and encourages them to adhere to rules to avoid longer incarceration and pursue early parole. Rape and other sex crimes in prisons occur due to many reasons. Facilities where prisoners are over-crowded have higher incidences of sexual abuse (Freedman 89). Understaffing of correctional facilities makes it hard to monitor prisoners’ activities. This creates space for indulgence in illegal and unethical

Thursday, July 25, 2019

IB History Course Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

IB History Course - Essay Example In some instances, they were actually used as death camps by literally working people to death intentionally, while in other cases people simply died because of the heavy demands and harsh conditions. Entire ethnic groups and races, such as Jews and Polish workers, were sent to these harsh labour camps to work until they died or at least wished to themselves that they would die to escape their miserable fate (Britannica Online 2008, Conquest 1991, and Noble 1961). The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the true purpose of the Gulags under the rule of Stalin. The investigation will cover the development of the Gulags, how they were used for different purposes, what work people were made to do in them, who were put in the Gulags, and how many people died. An analysis of these sections should indicate the extent to which these camps were actually death camps rather than labour camps. Much of the research will come from the following sources: Gulag: A History, by Applebaum; The Great Terror, by Conquest; and Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, by Montefiorte. The conditions in the Gulags were horrendous and of slave proportions. People were allowed to wear very little clothing, if any, and it was in terrible shape. Many nude photos of prisoners slaving away in the camps exist today; all one has to do is perform a quick keyword search on the Internet (Applebaum, 2005). The labor that they were subjected to was extremely harsh compared to anything that would be seen today. For example, prisoners were made to lag around large boulders, work in areas where heavy things were likely to fall on them, haul large amounts of lumber, and much more back-breaking work. They were fed very little and their meager meals in combination with the hard labor they were performing led to them being very skinny and unhealthy (Applebaum, 2005). Many times, it became physically impossible for a prisoner to handle the exhaustive physical labor and he simply could not go on. These prisoners were often whipped or beaten to death because it was taken by those who ran the labor camp that the person was refusing to follow orders. Other punishments were dealt out to these individuals as well, including starvation and isolation (Applebaum, 2005). These labor camps appear to be quite similar to Hitler's concentration camps in which many Jews perished. The main difference appears to be that the labor camps were punishment (and death) camps for the unlawful, while the concentration camps were death camps for the Jewish. In both, people were herded to them by the thousands, forced to work beyond what their bodies could handle, and were punished or killed as a result. People were lined up and shot execution style. People were herded into gas chambers. Some were just worked in the harsh weather conditions until they just fell over dead. 2. Development of the Gulags Individual camps were grouped together in what were called camp complexes. It is estimated that at least 476 of these complexes existed. Within the complexes were somewhere between 100 to over 1,000 different camps. Some camps were considered to be worse than others, with the top three on that

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Summaries of Articles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Summaries of Articles - Essay Example Another form of music of the white and black which came from the same origin is religious music. Beginning in the mid-17th century, black slaves receives religious instructions from their masters. At the same time, British preachers have also started their religious missions in their American colonies thereby influencing both races in the nation. Camp meetings for the black slaves become the most important venue where Africans absorbed hymns and Gospel songs. The shape-note method which is both utilized by black slaves and Americans serve a clear indication of the influence of British in south music. Recognizing the rapid advancement in technology in the modern world, this journal article examines the transformation from music publishing to MP3. The article recognizes the profit motive of business organizations engaged in the production of music and the utilization of technology in order to maximize returns. The author stresses that the understanding of how music evolved can be traced to the understanding of where technology developed. It then equates music popularity and culture with industrialized economies which can produce music most efficiently. From the humble publishing of music, the world has witnessed the burgeoning power of private labels in music production. However, this trend is now being altered through the internet technology which allows artists to market their musical creations to the public. The main argument of the author in the novel is the inexistent conflict between the black and the white. This is highlighted through the four movies which are given as examples in order to prove his point which includes Uncle Tom’s Cabin, The Birth of a Nation, The Jazz Singer, and Gone with the Wind. His apparent goal is to prove that Jewish immigrants and their offspring â€Å"as vaudeville performers, songwriters, and motion picture moguls become the examples for a structure of exploitation produced a

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Critical Thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Critical Thinking - Essay Example Other rhetoric surrounding senior citizens in terms of stereotypes include such things as they are ‘forgetful’, ‘childish’, ‘bad tempered’, ‘frigid’ (women), ‘dirty old men’, ‘cantankerous’, and ‘stubborn’. Stereotypes assigned to tattooed people usually involve bad images such as ‘promiscuity’, ‘aggressiveness’, ‘drug addicts’ and ‘toughies’ or ‘louts’, and they are very much associated with ‘bikies’ (a bad element who ride motor bikes). Feminists inspire numerous stereotypes that continually change as they go in and out of fashion. The derogatory stereotypes generally relate to women who are ‘ball breaker’s and ‘lesbians’ because they strive for equality with men. Many women do not identify themselves as feminists because of fear of reprisal created by stereotypical connotations attributed to them (Weibust & Miller, 2007). Politicians are considered as ‘liars’ and ‘benders of truth’, ‘manipulative’, ‘liners of their own pockets’ and ‘full of their own conceit’. They are probably the most highly stereotyped group of all and the only group that invent stereotypes against each other using negative rhetoric against their opponents.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Anansi Boys essay Essay Example for Free

Anansi Boys essay Essay Spider (from Anansi Boys) was Fat Charlie’s brother, his father was a singer and always made fun and got in trouble. Loki (from Mythology) was not a god but the son of a giant, he always involved himself in many things. Spider and Loki seemed very similar in a couple of ways. One way that Loki and Spider compare is that wherever they are something bad happens. While describing Loki in the mythology book the author says, â€Å"Wherever he came trouble followed. † This shows that Loki can bring ill-luck. Spider came into Fat Charlie’s life and brought ill-luck to him. Another way that Loki and Spider compare is that they get involved in others lives. When Spider came into Fat Charlie’s life, Spider took his job, Fiancà ©e, he was always in Fat Charlie’s spot, but, Fat Charlie lived with it only because he was his brother. Loki always got involved in the gods difficulties and dangers, even when doing that he was still allowed to come freely to Asgard, he came because he had sworn brotherhood. The final way that they compare was the way that they were punished. In the mythology book Loki was taken to a deep cavern and had venom poured over him and he was in agony, and intense pain, his wife helped him. In Anansi Boys Spider was taken to another world where the tiger tied him up and kept him there. Spider’s tongue got cut off which also was the cause for agony and pain. Fat Charlie saved him from the tiger. Loki and Spider have many similarities and little differences. They tend to bring disturbance to the others around them, but they have people to care about them.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Artificial Intelligence And Fuzzy Logic Controller In A Plc System Computer Science Essay

Artificial Intelligence And Fuzzy Logic Controller In A Plc System Computer Science Essay In this research paper, I am trying to analyse more about advanced Programmable logic controllers.Today it is hard to imagine a industry without PLC and other automatic controllers. As the production becomes more and more efficient, the controller work faster and the system become more complex. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques reduce the complexity and they are used through PLC-based process control system. The working of artificial intelligence consist of -diagnostic, knowledge, expert and the structure of an AI system. Function such as AI fault diagnostics in process help in controlling and successfully predicting the outcomes based on resident knowledge. Here i will be researching more about the applications of PLCs such as use of PLC s with fuzzy logic. Basic fuzzy logic and also its fundamental concepts will be analysed. Use of the fuzzy logic controller in practical applications include providing real time logical control systems. In the end i will be concluding on how advanced PLC are more efficient than the conventional PLCs. In industry use of automatic controllers is increased, the use of PLCs. The programmable logic controllers are based upon the on/off logic, in PLCs we use normally closed or normally open switch, and these switch can turn on or turn off the devices. PLCs contain a small processing unit, memory, input and output interfaces. But the PLCs are not able to represent the all data of the process and they are not able to take action to remove the faults. But with the help of the Artificial Intelligence we can make the system to make the decision on faults. Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science. In AI we use the data from the process to solve the many faults in the industry. All the information used by the AI is gathered from the person working in the plant/machine and log book also provide information about fault. The information about the fault-what kind of fault that was and how that was solved. Once all the information we gather from the process, all information is sto red in the memory of the PLC or elsewhere will be used by the PLC to solve the complex problems of the process. . II. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN A PLC A. Three type of AI system The classification of AI system is very difficult because they are used in the many applications but however we can classify in three types: 1.diagnostic 2.knowledge three type of AI system have similar characteristics. The system become more and more sophisticated as the size of the data base increases and the extent how the process data is used. Diagnostic AI system. This type of system is the fault detecting systems. They detect the fault in the application and they do not solve the problem. For example if the temperature of a tank is decreased the diagnostic system can diagnose the fault by reading the thermocouple values. These system use the knowledge to reach on a fault conclusion, these type of system are used in the applications that use a small data base and knowledge. Knowledge AI system An knowledge AI system is the enhanced diagnostic system. These type of systems are able to detect the fault and process behaviours based on the knowledge and they are also able to take the decisions concerning the process and/or the possible cause of a fault. Expert AI system This type of system comes on the first position in AI applications. Expert systems are more capabilities than the knowledge system. The expert system provides a further capability for examining process data with the help of statistical analysis and the system predict outcomes of the process that are based on present process assessments. The outcome calculation may be a decision and with the help of that decision process maintain the output in spite of a fault detection. The knowledge used in the expert AI systems are more complex than in the other AI systems; these type of system generate more feedback information. The expert systems also require more refined software programming to make decision, since their decision trees involve more options and attributes. The implementation of the expert systems is only done by with the help of extra programming and they also need more hardware. The system use the transducers to make the decision in the process and the total number of transducer used in this system is more than the other system. Programmable logic controller use the AI system, it will need two or more than two processer to make the all programming for the system. PLC system require more speed to operate in real time, the system should be fast. The system has large data to operate in the real time due to large data system also need large memory to store that data . B. Artificial Intelligence System Architecture The block diagram (Figure 1 ) shows the basic architecture of an AI system. It has three primary elements: 1 Global database, 2 Knowledge database, 3 Inference engine. The block diagram show that expert block first, that block provide the knowledge to the AI system and the knowledge is received from a person who know about the plant/process, how the machine perform their operation. The expert sends the all information (about system maintenance, faults) to the knowledge engineer. The process of transmitting the knowledge and gathering data is known as knowledge acquisition. C:UsersPARVEENDesktopimg3.jpg Figure.1 Artificial Intelligence system Architecture Global Database Global database contain the information about the process and the system, how to control them. The information contained by the global database is about the input and output data flow from the process. The global database is the storage area, the information about the process stored. The data stored in global database can be used any time to make the AI decision to control the process. PLC have memories to store the data and the Global database resides in the memory of the system that makes the system to take the AI decisions. We can also use the AI system with computer and the Global database will be in the hard disk of the computer. Knowledge Database The knowledge database store the information as the global database store about the process and the all information is supplied from the expert. It also contains information about the faults, process, causes of the problems and their solutions as well. Moreover, all the rules that help to make the decision are also stored in the knowledge database. The diagnostic system has knowledge database and that is less complex than the knowledge system. The knowledge system is less complicated than the expert system. It stored in the system memory. Inference Engine All the AI system has inference engine. All the decisions are made in the inference engine. Inference engine use the knowledge database to make the decision about the process and after that inference engine execute the rules in the process. It also uses the historical data of the process to make the real time decision. PLC system contain the central processing unit, CPU perform all the operation for the system and the inference engine may be inside the CPU or it may not be inside data that depends upon the diagnostic, knowledge, expert. C. Knowledge representation In the knowledge representation all the AI strategies are organised and the knowledge engineer represent the input of the expert. The knowledge database is used for the storage of the representation. The knowledge from the expert is changed in the form of rules (IF and THEN/ELSE) and we call it rule-based knowledge representation. It make the system capable to take action and decision. A PLC system is used with AI, all the control strategies are executed by software programs. Whenever a fault is detected by the system and at that time system makes a decision, inference engine also use the knowledge representation. The decision will be in the form of software. D. Rule-based knowledge representation It uses the knowledge from the expert and make the decision with the help of that knowledge. The rules contain two parts, first part antecedent (IF something happens) and the second part consequent (THEN take this action). All the rules are made for the process and they can be complex. A simple rule-based System may make a simple diagnostic rule, such as: IF the temperature of a tank is less than the set point, THEN turn on the heater. A more complex diagnostic formula may contain rules that further depend on a more complex diagnostic formula and they involve the rules that are depend on Parent rules: IF case 1, THEN  ¾Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  ELSE nothing â‚ ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã‚ ½ IF case 2, THEN  ¾Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  ELSE something â‚ ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã‚ ½ IF case 3  ¾Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  THEN nothing â‚ ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã‚ · â‚ ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã‚ · The decision tree makes the system capable to take the decisions. The figure 2 shows how the decision tree works to get a decision on the given process data. C:UsersPARVEENDesktopimg4.jpg â‚ ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Figure 2 â‚ ¬Ã‚  Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Decision Tree E. Knowledge inference This is the method used to draw conclusion by gathering the data. When the system execute the main control strategy at that time the inference of knowledge takes place in the inference engine. The knowledge inference is also takes place in knowledge database when computation of rule is going on. In the small control system the knowledge inference takes place on local basis. But in case of large systems knowledge inference takes place in the hierarchical system. To design a AI based PLC we need hardware, the need of hardware depends on the involvement of the AI. In all AI systems some common methods of rules are used for the implementation of knowledge inference. Methods are: 1. Forward Chaining, 2.Backward Chaining. Forward chaining-This method is used to find out the outcomes of a given data and receives the information from the global database. Forward Chaining is done by two methods: depth first, breadth first search. Backward chaining-This is also similar to the forward chaining. Basically it is used to find the antecedents. F. Basic Architecture of an AI based PLC Large and complex distributed control systems are made by the combination of small systems. They can communicate with each other either directly or with the help of local area network. The AI is added in the large systems, global database, knowledge database and knowledge inference from these is distributed all over the system. These large systems are made by the combination of small system and all the local system has their own local data base and knowledge database. The PLCs in the diagram shows they perform inference engine computations. In the large systems the supervisory PLC use the all subsystem and their local database to make a complex decision. The main computer we call it blackboard hold the all information from the small units. The main computer applies all the complex AI solution. C:UsersPARVEENDesktopimg5.jpg Figure 3 Architecture of an AI based PLC III. FUZZY LOGIC IN A PLC In industrial automation Programmable Logic Controller combine the simplicity, and reliability. Fuzzy logic is a part of AI which deals with reasoning used to imitate human decision making and thinking in machines. The reasoning is transformed in algorithms. These algorithms are used when the data cannot be converted in the binary form. The output of the process is the input for the fuzzy controller. Fuzzy logic performs three main actions. First is fuzzification, in this action the data received at the input is converted in the fuzzy form. Second is fuzzy processing, which involves the transformation of the input data according to IF†¦THEN rules formed by the user at the time of design and programming of the fuzzy control systems. After finishing the fuzzy processing (rule-processing stage) the fuzzy controller reach an outcome. Third is defuzzification process, this is final step of the fuzzy controller. In this step the final output data is converted into the real output data and after that the data is sent to the process with the help of output interface. The fuzzy logic controller is placed in the PLC rack in this case the controller does not have a direct contact with the process, the fuzzy logic controller will send the defuzzification data in the PLC memory location and PLC send that data to the process by the interface module. In the most of the fuzzy logic controller have their independent interface ports and they are also connected to the PLC with the help of the plug. The fuzzy controller can communicate with the process through the PLCs input/out ports. PLC can be interfaced with the intelligent fuzzy controllers. Interface of Fuzzy logic with PLC A Fuzzy logic controllers input interface can read the data from the 8 devices and it can transmit the data to 4 output devices with the help of the output interface. This interface is able to perform 128 rules, each rule can have maximum IF conditions and the action will be in the form of two THEN. The fuzzy logic controller has capability to perform all its computations in only in 6 msec if fuzzy logic unit works separately of the processer, as a result it providing fast functioning of fuzzy logic control. Fuzzy Logic and I/O Communication In below given Table 1, the Fuzzy Logic Unit (FLU) uses the programmable controllers memory to store the control parameters and fuzzy logic controller uses 10 words or registers. The position of the FLU module in the rack tells about the registers addresses. Assuming that the position of the FLU module takes the addresses 110 through 119, the use of the addresses by the FLC module as follows: The first four bits (0-3) the first word is (word 110) and its first four bits(0-3) enclose, in BCD, the FLU module uses as the number of inputs. 15 number bit turns on the fuzzy processing of this word. The second word (word 111) specifies that the location of the input data stored in the PLCs memory. It tells the starting register address. TABLE I inputs: bits 0-3 of word 110 specify the number of inputs to be read (8 max) (e.g., I = 8) Word 111: starting address where input data is located (length of I) (e.g., address = 120) Outputs: bits 0-3 of word 112 specify the number of outputs to be written (4 max) (e.g., O = 4) Word 113: starting address where output data is located (length of O) (e.g., address = 130) Word 114: used for flags and settings Words 115-119: available as working word addresses 3) As the first word, the third word is (word112) and the first four bits enclose the outputs in BCD. 4) The fourth word (word 113) store the address where the output data is stored, the output data is obtained by the fuzzy logic computations. Because fuzzy logic controller work with the other I/O interfaces, their input/output data must be send to the I/O modules working with them. Figure 4 shows how the memory addresses (words) used by the Fuzzy Logic Controller and it also shows the location of the input and output data according to the input/output devices. C:UsersPARVEENDesktopimg2.jpg Figure 4 The working of the Fuzzy Logic Unit works with I/O interfaces We can also use the block transfer instruction to transfer the data between FLU and input/output interfaces (Figure 5). C:UsersPARVEENDesktopimg1.gif Figure 5.Block Transfer of instructions IV CONCLUSION When we apply artificial techniques to a system, we need to add hardware as well as software to in the system. The program that system needed is depending upon the fault in the system, the fault detection is complex then the program will be more complex. We design a system that also has intelligence; this is possible by adding the data from the process. The data should be about the process regarding the last time fault and what type of fault that was, how that was solved and when was the last maintenance performed. The addition of artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic controller in a PLC make the system faster and the system will be able to take decision about the process. The system will be better than the conventional PLCs. . . V REFRENCES [1] Bikash Pal, Balarko Chaudhuri, Robust control in power systems, Spinger, 2005 . [2] Fuzzy Logic Toolbox Users Guide, The MathWorks, Inc.,2008. [3] PLC-5 Programmable Controlers, Rockwell Automation, USA, 2007. [4] C. P. Chuang, X. Lan, J. C. Chen, A systematic procedure for designing state combination circuits in PLCs, Journal of Industrial Technology, 1999;15(3):2-5. [5] S. Manesis, K. Akantziotis, Automated synthesis of ladder automation circuits based on state-diagrams, Advances in Engineering Software, 2005;36:225-233. [6] A. Rullan, Programmable logic controllers versus Personal computers for process control, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 1997;33:421-424. [7] J. Jang, P. H. Koo, S. Y. Nof, Application of design and control tools in a multirobot cell, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 1997;32:89-100. [8] P. Klingstam, P. Gullander, Overview of simulation Tools for computer-aided production engineering, Computers in Industry, 1999;38:173-186. [9] L. A. Bryan, E. A. Bryan, Programmable Controllers, Theory and Implementation, An industrial text company publication, U.S.A. 1997, p. 785.

Concepts of Time Travel: Wormholes, Gravity and Blackholes

Concepts of Time Travel: Wormholes, Gravity and Blackholes Any sort of time travel to the past through wormholes or any viable strategy is presumably incomprehensible, generally mysteries might happen. So unfortunately, it seems that time travel to the past will never happen; a bafflement for dinosaur seekers and an easing for antiquarians. How to travel in future? Through wormholes: We should enjoy a little science fiction for a minute. Time travel motion pictures regularly offer an immense, vitality hungry machine. The machine makes a way through the fourth measurement, a tunnel through time. A time traveler, youthful hearted, a fearless, maybe reckless individual, ready for who realizes what, steps into the time tunnel and rises who knows when. The idea may be outlandish, and the actuality may be altogether different from this, yet the thought itself is not so insane. As should be obvious these films from a century ago are continually providing for some mind boggling and exceptional plans to individuals. In this way, much the same as those motion pictures physicists have been contemplating tunnels in time, dark gaps and going at the rate of light, However they take a stab at it from an alternate edge. They think about whether gateways to the past or whats to come could ever be conceivable inside according to laws of nature. So, they think they seem to be. Additionally, they have even provided for them a name: WORMHOLES. The reality of the situation is that wormholes are surrounding us, just theyre so little there is no option see. Wormholes are extremely minor. They happen in niches and crevices in space and time. A wormhole is a hypothetical tunnel or alternate route, anticipated by Einsteins hypothesis of relativity, that connections two spots in space-time envisioned above, where negative vitality pulls space-time into the hole of a tunnel, rising in an alternate universe. This have been utilized as a part of movies as conductors for time travel in Star-door, for instance, including gated tunnels between two different universes, and in two different Time times. Its much the same as a tunnel/connect between two structures; think about 2 persons need to go from first buildings top carpet to the others, individual a picked the tunnel and he arrived at rapidly as contrasted with the second individual who first went down and after that entered in second building and took a lift for top floor. Much the same as those tunnels wormholes are tunnels between two separate periods of space-time fabric. Nothing is level or strong. In the event that you gaze nearly enough toward anything youll discover openings and wrinkles in it. Its an essential physical rule, and it even applies to time. Actually something as smooth as nails has small openings, wrinkles and voids. Notwithstanding its not difficult to show that this is correct in the initial three sizes. Anyhow as stated by Einstein, its likewise valid for the fourth extent. There are little openings, wrinkles and voids in time. They are more diminutive even than sand, littler than particles. Small tunnels or easy routes through space and time always structure, vanish, and change inside this smaller than usual micro world. Furthermore they really interface two separate spots and two separate times, as should be obvious above in. Whats more if by one means or another through enough power and propelled innovation, a goliath wormhole will have been built in space so that our spaceship (time machine) could go through it. It might be a sincerely astonishing gadget. One end could be here close Earth, and the other far, far away, close to some removed planet. Hypothetically, a period tunnel or wormhole could do significantly more than take us to different planets. In the event that both finishes were in the same place, and differentiated by time rather than separation, a boat could fly in and turn out still close Earth, yet in the inaccessible past. Possibly Mughal Emperors might witness the boat coming in for an arriving or in future where we might meet our amazing grand grand kids. HOW THEY ARE USELESS? They remain just theoretical, as clearly no one has ever seen one, lamentably, these genuine time tunnels are simply a billion-trillion-trillionths of a centimeter (10^-33cm) over. Much excessively little for a human to pass through, yet heres the place the thought of wormhole time machines is heading. A few researchers think it may be conceivable to catch a wormhole and extend it numerous trillions of times to become showbiz royalty enough for a man or even any travelling object to enter. At the same time, to do so they require extremely enormous measure of vitality, for a wormhole something like 1 meter over, huge enough to fit an individual, youd require a Jupiters value of mass changed over into vitality, and beyond any doubt its unimaginable and almost incomprehensible. We should think about on the off chance that it is conceivable to do it, yet according to Stephen Hawking: Wormhole like this much big cant exist. Whats more the explanation behind that is reaction. If you ever went to any concert, youll presumably distinguish this shrieking clamor. Its reaction. What causes it is basic. Sound enters the amplifier. Its transmitted along the wires, made louder by the enhancer, and turns out at the speakers. However in the event that excessively of the sound from the speakers about-faces into the mic it goes around and around in a circle getting louder each one time. In the event that nobody stops it, criticism can wreck the sound framework. The same problem will occur with a wormhole, just with radiation rather than sound. When the wormhole stretches, characteristic radiation will enter it, and wind up in a circle. The reaction will get to be so solid it obliterates the wormhole. So despite the fact that little wormholes do exist, and it may be conceivable to blow up one sometime, it wont keep going long enough to be useful as a time machine. So time travel through wormhole is not conceivable. Be that as it may the storys not over yet. This doesnt set aside a few minutes travel incomprehensible. TIME TRAVEL THROUGH GRAVITY and BLACK HOLES: Time streams like a stream and it appears to be as though each of us is conveyed persistently along by times current. Anyhow time is similar to a waterway in an alternate way. It streams at distinctive speeds in better places and that is the way to going into whats to come. This thought was initially proposed by Albert Einstein in excess of 100 years prior. He understood that there ought to be places where time backs off, and others where time accelerates. He was completely right. GPS, A system of satellites is in circle around Earth. The satellites make satellite route conceivable. Be that as it may they likewise uncover that time runs speedier in space than it does down here on Earth. Inside every rocket is an extremely exact clock. At the same time in spite of being so precise, they all increase around a minor of a second consistently. The framework need to right for the float, generally that modest contrast might steamed the entire framework, bringing about every GPS gadget on Earth to go out by something like six miles a day. You can simply envision the pandemonium that that might bring about. The issue doesnt lie with the timekeepers. They run quick on the grounds that time itself runs speedier in space than it does down beneath. Furthermore the explanation behind this uncommon impact is the mass of the Earth. Einstein understood that matter delays time and eases it off like the moderate some piece of a waterway. The heavier the item, the more it delays time. Also this startling actuality is the thing that opens the avenue to the likelihood of time travel to whats to come. Planets dont impact excessively on time, we need something truly colossal and enormous body to make the range more curvy so time pass more gradually. The gravity which must be thousand times more amazing than sun. Right in the focal point of the Milky Way, 26 thousands light years from us, lies the most heaviest protest in the system. It is a super-enormous dark gap holding the mass of four million suns smashed down into a solitary point by its gravity. The closer you get to the dark gap, the stronger the gravity. Get truly close and not even light can find a way to get escape. A dark opening like this one has an emotional impact on time, easing it off significantly more than whatever else might be available in the universe. That sets aside a few minutes machine. Presently simply envision how a spaceship/time machine could have the capacity to exploit this wonder, by circling it. On the off chance that a space office were controlling the mission from Earth theyd watch that each one full circle took 16 minutes. At the same time for the fearless individuals ready for, to this gigantic item, time might be backed off. Furthermore here the impact might be significantly more great than the gravitational force of Earth. The teams opportunity might be backed off significantly. For like clockwork circle, theyd just encounter eight minutes of time. Around and around theyd set out for some, encountering simply a fraction of the time of everybody far from the dark gap. The boat and its group might be going through time. Envision they surrounded the dark gap for five of their years. Ten years might pass somewhere else. When they returned home, everybody on Earth might have matured five years more than they had. So as stated by researcher super-huge dark gap is a time machine. How is it impossible? At the same time obviously, its not precisely commonsense. It has favorable circumstances over wormholes in that it doesnt incite mysteries. Also it wont annihilate itself in a blaze of criticism. At the same time its really risky. Its far away and it doesnt even take us far into whats to come. We have to go at the pace of light for 26,000 years to get close to them. Whats more again to do so we dont have enough vitality and life compass. The other point is that on the off chance that we go close to the dark opening, we will fall in it as it has extraordinary gravity that not even light can escape from it. The given focuses demonstrate that time travel through dark gaps is additionally outlandish. Luckily there is an alternate approach to go in time. Whats more this speaks to researchers last and best any expectation of building a time machine. TIME TRAVEL And speed of light: You simply need to travel, quick; much quicker even than the rate needed to abstain from being sucked into a dark opening. This is because of an alternate weird reality about the universe. Theres an inestimable rate confine, 186,000 miles for every second or 299,792,458 meter for every second, otherwise called the velocity of light. Nothing can surpass that speed. Its their one of the best settled standards in science. Accept it or not, as stated by researchers going at close to the pace of light transports you to whats to come. To demonstrate why, how about we think up a science-fiction transportation framework. Envision a track that goes all around Earth, a track for a fastest train. Were going to utilize this nonexistent train to get as close as could be allowed to the pace of light and perceive how it turns into a time machine. Ready for travelers with a restricted ticket to whats to come. The train starts to quicken, quicker and speedier. Before long its circumnavigating the Earth again and again. To approach the rate of light means surrounding the Earth really quick. Seven times each second. Be that as it may regardless of what amount of force the train has, it can never fully achieve the rate of light, since the laws of physical science deny it. Rather, we should say it draws near, only a tiny bit short of that extreme rate. Notwithstanding something phenomenal happens. Time begins streaming gradually ready for to whatever remains of the world, much the same as close to the dark opening, just all the more so. Everything on the train is in moderate movement. This happens to ensure as far as possible, and its not tricky to see why. Envision a kid running advances up the train. Her send pace is added to the velocity of the prepare, so would she be able to break as far as possible basically by mishap? The response is no. The laws of nature keep the likelihood by backing off time locally available. Notwithstanding she cant run quick enough to break the utmost. Time will constantly ease off only enough to ensure as far as possible. Also from that certainty comes the likelihood of voyaging numerous years into whats to come. Envision that the train left the station on February 1, 2020. It rings Earth again and again for 100 prior years at long last stopping on New Years Day, 2120. The travelers will have just existed one week in light of the fact that time is backed off that much inside the train. When they got out theyd discover an altogether different world from the one theyd cleared out. In one week theyd have voyage 100 years into whats to come. Last hope also DIED: Again we require a lot of vitality to move at velocity of light, vitality at any rate equivalents to the half vitality of universe. Besides, as stated by Einstein the quicker you go the heavier you get and additionally, on the off chance that we see the equation of motor vitality K.e=(1/2)mv^2, where m is the mass of anyone and v is its speed. Also this recipe says that our dynamic vitality is specifically relative to the square of our speed, which implies that motor vitality of an item builds because of the movement of that question. Also I believe that moving at any pace does not have any effect. Implies it doesnt make a difference from what speed you are moving, there will be no impact on time, of course, that is one mans feeling. In this way, obviously, fabricating a prepare that could arrive at such a velocity is truly outlandish. Anyway we have manufactured something exceptionally like the train at the worlds biggest atom smasher at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Profound underground, in a roundabout tunnel 16 miles in length, is a stream of trillions of small particles. At the point when the force is turned on the quicken from zero to 60,000mph in a small amount of a second. Increment the force and the particles go speedier and quicker, until theyre zooming around the tunnel 11,000 times each second, which is just about the velocity of light. At the same time much the same as the train, they never entirely achieve that extreme rate. They can just get to 99.99 for every penny of the farthest point. At the point when that happens, they excessively begin to go in time. We know this in view of some to a great degree fleeting particles, called pi-mesons. Customarily, they deteriorate after only 25 billionths of a second. However when they are quickened to close light speed they keep going 30 times longer. Well they have demonstrate about it, yet as they are moving those particles almost at velocity of light so there is a huge impact on their vitality level, and most presumably because of progress in vitality those particles change their properties. Henceforth, they keep going 30 times longer because of this reason. It truly is that basic. In the event that we need to go into whats to come, we only need to go quick. Truly quick. Whats more I think the main way were liable to do that is by going into space. The speediest manned vehicle in history was Apollo 10. It arrived at 25,000mph. Be that as it may to go in time well need to go more than 2,000 times speedier. Also to do that wed require a much greater ship, a sincerely huge machine. The boat might need to be huge enough to convey a gigantic measure of fuel, enough to quicken it to about the pace of light. Getting to simply underneath the grandiose pace cutoff might oblige six entire years at full power. The introductory increasing speed might be tender in light of the fact that the boat might be so huge and substantial. In any case step by step it might get velocity and soon might be blanket gigantic separations. In one week it might have arrived at the external planets. Following two years it might achieve half-light speed and be far outside our earths planetary group. Two years after the fact it might be going at 90 for every penny of the rate of light. Around 30 trillion miles far from Earth, and 4 or 4.5 years after launch, the boat might start to go in time. For each hour of time on the boat, two might pass on Earth,a comparative circumstance to the spaceship that circled the monstrous dark gap. After an additional two years of full push the boat might achieve its top speed, 99 percent of the velocity of light. At this velocity, and as stated by the figuring of researchers, a solitary day ready for an entire year of Earth time. Our boat might be sincerely flying into whats to come. Impact of Globalization on Culture | Essay Impact of Globalization on Culture | Essay In todays world of interconnectedness, the conception of independent, coherent, and stable cultures are becoming increasingly rare. Processes of globalization are drawing people from different cultural origins into close relationships as can be seen in the unprecedented expansion of tourism, the flourishing of multinational corporations, the emergence of new geographical unities like the European Community, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the dissemination of pop culture, the increasing flow of migrations, the growth of diasporas, the emergence of Internet communities, and the establishment of global institutions like the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations. Nevertheless even though cultures are seen as unstable and changing, this shift is generally viewed from a macro perspective, of the bigger affecting the smaller, the process of global affecting the local. The alternative i.e. the local effecting the global is not paid much attention to in globalization literature. This feature of the emerging world has been grasped and theorized by what we call glocalization theory today. The essence of the emerging worldwide phenomenon where globalization and localization are simultaneously transforming the development landscape is captured by Glocalization. The term Glocalization is very similar to the term Globalization and in fact has its roots in it. To understand the essence of glocalization we need to first look at what globalization denotes and the problems with it which gave rise to the glocal as opposed to the global or simply the local. Globalization can be seen as a compression of the world as a whole. But in terms of culture what has become almost commonplace is to think of globalization as a large scale phenomenon that involves the triumph of culturally homogenizing forces over all others. The bigger, is increasingly seen as better. This view has been criticized as having a lack of concern with micro sociological or local issues. So ciologist Ronald Robertson who is instrumental in popularizing the term shows that there have been attempts to propose a global sociology with ventures to incorporate indigenous sociologies into this wider imperative. The process of globalization was being increasingly seen as a tendency which overrides the locality. Thus the concept of Glocalization as Robertson puts it is was needed, as according to him universalism was being countrerposed to particularism. Glocalization essentially encapsulates the simultaneous processes of globalization and localization that are taking place in the world today. The global expressed in the local and the local as the particularization of the global. Globalization The term has its roots in the Japanese term dochakuka which first appeared in the late 1980s in articles by Japanese economists in the Harvard Business Review. The term originally meant adapting farming technique to ones own local condition. The idea was later adopted to refer to global-localization. According to the dictionary meaning, the term glocal and the process noun glocalization are formed by telescoping global and local to make a blend  [1]. Glocalization seems to be a problematic term as it is seen as meaning different things to different people. Roland Robertson, conceptualized glocalization as, the universalization of particularization and the particularization of universalism  [2]. Khondker expressed it as a process combining the twin processes of macro-localization and micro-globalization. For others globalization provokes revival of local cultural identities. Thus in his view local is the provider of the response to the forces that are global. Nevertheless what we adhere to in this paper is the Robertsonian view of glocalization which argues that any focus on the global must have a focus on the local for the two are mutually constitutive of each other; it is not as simple as the global being proactive and the local being reactive. He attributes this to the debates centering on the relationship between the global and the local. The global was scripted as being homogenizing because of the economic and cultural flows associated with it (proactive) and the local being a site of heterogeneity fighting to keep out globalization (reactive). Rethinking globalization in this way leads to the recognition that it is not a process that operates exclusively at a planetary scale, but is constantly being localized in various ways and with different intensities. Forces from above periodically emerge to interrupt local serenity. With local cultural stasis upset by outside forces, a re-stabilization process sets in to enable the emergence o f a new culture more able to cope with the disorder brought on by, in this case, globalization Robertson refers to glocalization as the interpenetration  of the  global  and local  resulting  in unique  outcomes  in different  geographical  areas. At a 1997 conference on Globalization and Indigenous Culture, Robertson said that glocalization means the simultaneity the co-presence of both universalizing and particularizing tendencies. The process also denotes the commonly interconnected processes of homogenization and heterogenization. Theorists of glocalization typically challenge the assumption that globalization processes always endanger the local. Rather, glocalization both highlights how local cultures may critically adapt or resist global phenomena, and reveals the way in which the very creation of localities is a standard component of globalization. There is now a universal normalization of locality, in the sense that local cultures are assumed to arise constantly and particularize themselves vis-a-vis other specific cultures. Some have also termed th is process as internal globalization i.e. globalization is seen as not only a macro structure but to highlight the reality of micro globalization. Internal globalization means that large numbers of people around the globe are now exposed to other cultures on a daily basis without crossing borders on a regular basis, simply through the variety of communication media. Furthermore, they might encounter immigrants, refugees, or tourists in their own locality. They might also encounter cultural artefacts and commercial establishments that bring other cultures into close proximity to their own. The increasing presence of McDonalds restaurants worldwide is an example of globalization, while the restaurant chains menu changes in an attempt to appeal to local palates are an example of glocalization. Perhaps even more illustrative of glocalization: For promotions in France, the restaurant chain recently chose to replace its familiar Ronald McDonald mascot with Asterix the Gaul, a popular Fren ch cartoon character. Products are embedded and then promoted within the local culture. Dannie Kjeldgaard and Soren Askegaard analyze the whole glocalization discourse with respect to youth culture and view them mainly as consumers. According to them youth culture is an institutionalized facet of the market, emerging predominantly from Western cultural currents and diffusing globally. Early youth cultural styles diffused primarily in the West but also to other parts of the modernizing world. Youth culture, like other spheres of social life due to the process of glocalization, is increasingly shaped by and constitutes global cultural flows. They put forth Appadurais analysis who analyzes the global cultural economy by using the landscape metaphor to illustrate such flows within five scapes: ethnoscapes (the flow of people), technoscapes (the flow of technology), finanscapes (the flow of finance and capital), mediascapes (the flow of mediated images), and ideoscapes (the flow of ideas and ideologies). These flows increase the availability of symbols and meanings in consum ers everyday lives in such a way that much of what is available in one place is also available in any other place. The glocalization processes constituted by these flows shape socio-cultural reality in dialectical processes between the local and the global. Through these processes, the styles characteristic of youth culture spread globally, instigating the development of local versions of youth culture through appropriation and creolization. They are mainly of the opinion that members of the youth market interpret and rework global cultural practices and meanings to fit into their local contexts. Consumption practices are inscribed in local historically constituted cultural discourses and in particular consumers are reliant on their predominantly class-based, socio-cultural resources for negotiating global meanings and practices in their daily lives. Their study addresses several knowledge gaps by showing that the often noted homogeneity of global youth consumption practices overloo ks their deeper structural differences and diverse localized meanings. These deeper differences flow from the manifestations of a transnational market ideology in glocalized forms. Identities are rearticulated in local versions, although these appropriative reworkings are never totally free of ideological influence. The ideological models carry with them preferred readings, which consumers have to negotiate. Culture To understand the impact the process of glocalization has on culture we first need to understand what the term culture denotes. It is in the domain of culture that we think, express ourselves articulate our aspirations and decide our mode of life. In general culture can be said to refer to the social construction, articulation and reception of meaning. Culture can be seen as a lived and creative experience for individuals as well as a body of artifacts texts and objects. It embraces the specialized and professionalized discourses of the arts, the commodified output of the cultural industries the spontaneous and unorganized cultural expressions of everyday life and the complex interactions between all these.  [3]  The essence of a culture is defined by its responses to the ultimate questions of human existence: death, hope, tragedy, love, loyalty, power, the meaning and purpose of life, and the place of the transcendental in human existence. But the responses to these questions ar e different and vary from region to region thus producing different values to the different elements relating to culture. The responses to these questions are affected by different socio-cultural-political even technological criteria thus having a whole different outlook to the way life is lived and perceived. Again Jan Nederveen Pieterse gives us a different classification of culture. According to him in the context of the global there can be two concepts of culture.  [4]  One is culture as essentially territorial i.e. localized culture of societies and groups. The other he classifies as culture as a general human software which refers to it as a trans-local learning process. Culture in the first sense of the term has an inward looking sense of a place while the second is essentially in the sense of outward looking. According to Pieterse the second finds expression in the first. Culture is the medium through which individuals and collectivities organize and conceptualize their identities in time and space. Thus different views of or different ways of looking at culture can have a huge impact on the influences cultural flows will have on different societies. Impact of Glocalization on Culture The whole process of the global effecting the local and the local the global has ramifications in a number of spheres and in a number of ways. There are basically two contestants in the globalization debate as Featherstone and Lash note, the homogenizer for whom globalization is to be seen as a consequence of modernity and heterogenizers who consider globalization as characterizing post modernity.  [5]  Homogenizers tend to think in terms of a world system that leads them to look primarily at the presence of universals. Heterogenizers, on the other hand, tend to dispute that a world system exists and disclaim the validity of universals. They see the dominance of the West over the Rest as simply one particular system over another system. The glocalization debate does not adhere strictly to any of these extremes but shows that the whole process is a two-way dialogue having both homogenizing and heterogenizing tendencies and tries to address the contradiction between the two. The g lobal infrastructures of culture and communication have also contributed to increasingly dense transnational elite and professional cultures. Others have argued how this process of glocalization provides for sharper cultural consciousness. There are certain impacts that Roland Robertson and Richard Giulianotti point out in their article dealing with glocallization. In the article they develop a four-fold typology of glocalization projects, with reference to how they affect culture  [6]. The glocalization projects are: Relativization: here, social actors seek to preserve their prior cultural institutions, practices and meanings within a new environment, thereby reflecting a commitment to differentiation from the host culture. Accommodation: here, social actors absorb pragmatically the practices, institutions and meanings associated with other societies, in order to maintain key elements of the prior local culture. Hybridization: here, social actors synthesize local and other cultural phenomena to produce distinctive, hybrid cultural practices, institutions and meanings. Transformation: here, social actors come to favour the practices, institutions or meanings associated with other cultures. Transformation may procure fresh cultural forms or, more extremely, the abandonment of the local culture in favour of alternative and/or hegemonic cultural forms. This fourfold typology enumerates how the process of glocalization has impacts other than merely homogenizing. Further Robertson in his essay Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity negates the discourse on Cultural imperialism specially by the USA and instead advocates a line of thought which recognizes the alternatives. Some of these arguments are as follows: The cultural messages from the west are also differentially received and interpreted by the different locals. They absorb the communications transmitted in different ways The major alleged producers of global culture (CNN,Hollywood) etc increasingly are seen to tailor products to differentiated global markets National symbolic resources are increasingly available for differentiated global interpretation and consumption, for example plays of Shakespeare are variously interpreted today and is not only viewed from the British angle Flow of ideas and practices from the third world to dominant societies should not be underestimated Jan Nederveen Pieterse on the other hand views the whole process of globalization itself as a process of hybridization giving rise to a global mà ©lange.  [7]  He defines hybridization as ways in which forms become separated from existing practices and recombine with new forms in new practices. The phenomenon of hybridization basically undermines the idea of cultures as internally homogenous and externally distinct. He views identity patterns as becoming more complex as people want to assert local loyalties but want to share global values and lifestyles. All this ultimately point to the fact that cultural experiences are not moving in a direction of cultural uniformity and standardization. If this was the case there would be no space for cross-over cultures or third cultures for example music today. He gives examples to show what the process of hybridization creates multiple identities such as Mexican schoolgirls dressed in Greek togas dancing in the style of Isadora Duncan, a L ondon boy of Asian origin playing for a local Bengali cricket team and at the same time supporting the Arsenal football club, Thai boxing by Moroccan girls in Amsterdam, and Native Americans celebrating Mardi Gras in the United States. He further points out that the cultures exported by the west are themselves mixed cultures when the lineage of the cultures is examined. Thus the whole process of glocalization has made possible what we know as creolization of global culture or even orientalization of the world today which all point in the opposite direction to that of homogenization. The glocally-mediated, normalized cultural hybrid is here to stay till other new forces emerge which can dislodge them and maybe steer the course towards homogenization again or its extreme opposite heterogeneity. Sociological glocalizations focus on how local cultures are modified along global lines indicates the need to take more seriously how actors redefine themselves when frameworks become dislodged from their social foundations. Hubert J. M. Hermans and Harry J. G. Kempen on the other hand analyze the impact by challenging the academic mainstream conceptions which continues to work in a tradition of cultural dichotomies (e.g., individualistic vs. collectivistic, independent vs. interdependent) formulated as contrasts between western and non-western cultures. Three developments are presented that challenge this approach: the increasing cultural connections with the phenomenon of hybridization as a consequence the emergence of a world system that implies an interpenetration of the global and the local the enlarged cultural complexity as a result of large-scale distribution of cultural meanings and practices Thus we see how through the processes of intermixing and hybridization the process of glocalization is at work whereby not only the global is seen to effect the local but there exists a reciprocity by which local cultures have an influence on the global giving rise to what is known as global mass culture  [8]  impregnated with ideas, styles and genres concerning religion, music, art, cooking and so on. Nevertheless a discussion on the whole process of globalization vis-à  -vis glocalization remains unfinished without a discussion on the actors promoting globalization. These actors have a huge role to play in the process of interconnecting the world. They also realize the limits of homogenizing and are seen to adapt to local conditions as put forth by the glocalists. Enumerating the role of the actors also brings in the issue of power dynamics in the process of glocalization. Actors Another very important aspect when we talk of the transmission of culture is the role played by the various actors who play a part in the transmission whether from the global to the local or from the local to the global. Among them is a group of 20-30 very large Multi National Corporations who dominate global markets for entertainment, news, television etc. and these have acquired a very significant cultural presence in almost every continent. They are Time-Warner, Disney, Bertelsmann, Viacom, News Corporation, Sony, Universal, TCI, Philips etc to name a few. More important is that all these have their home base in OECD countries and the majority being in the USA. Three particular cultural markets are music cinema and television. It has created transnational corporations producing and marketing records, specially import and export of musical products and the penetration of national markets by foreign artists and music. Further this is based on a broader transfer of styles that are ro oted largely in American youth culture. Under the auspices of the global music industry local musical traditions too have an audience outside their homeland under the banner of so called world music. Due to globalization there is also a diffusion of film-making capacities and organizations around the world. Also co-production has been very prevalent that is the development of the film is funded by organizations in more than one nation. Again television too has become an industry as well as a medium of globalization. Tourism is also an important method of promoting culture, but again the majority of travel movements have been within North America and Western Europe. Apart from these a number of organizations and international agencies such as the UNESCO, WTO etc have become involved in the global communications and culture or the issue of cultural protectionism etc. The notion of glocality is meant to transcend the binary opposition between the global and the local and to provide an accurate linguistic representation of their  blending in real life. But in reality when cultures meet there is also a politics. Cultures may have assymetrical information emanating from the unequal distribution of wealth and political power. The global imperialism of the western countries from 16th -20th century provided the infrastructure for imposition and diffusion of western ideas, values and cultural institutions and practices across the world. Since the advent of European modernity cultural flows have been primarily from the west to the east following lines of imperial control. Flows are reversed mainly through migration but also through other cultural forms such as music, food, idea beliefs etc. But the cultural politics of colonialism still prevails to a large extent. Due to the presence of the historical and economic contexts prevailing in the world the de gree to which the local, mainly of the peripheries, affect the dominant societies, mainly the west, is far less than the influence of westernization and Americanization. All the modes of cultural globalization the stretching and deepening of relationships, the movement of signs, objects and people, cultural diffusion and emulation and the establishment of infrastructure and institutions involve distinct patterns of stratification, of hierarchy and unevenness. This is mainly because of the way people have learned history, that there exists an entity called the West and that one can think of this West as a society independent of and in opposition to other. This independence though has been challenged, and is correct to a large extent, by the glocalist, the greater influence still is directed from the west to the east a fact that cannot be denied. This can be clearly shown when we see the role of the actors involved in the process of dissemination of information and thus changing cult ures. The American film industry is fairly independent and does not depend on co-sponsors thus avoiding any dictates regarding the substance and character of the film. Also the major MNCs have their home bases in the western nations mainly the USA and promote their own cultures through their communication channels. Even the international institutions are majorly dominated by the western powers. Thus, though glocalization is taking place, the influence of the global on the local still remains far greater than the influence of the local on the global. Conclusion Therefore we end on a note where we accept the glocalist position of the process of global-localization. The presumed internal homogeneity of cultures and their conception as externally distinctive are called into question. Different localities today are interpreting the global cultural flows differentially as has been enumerated in the paper so far. It is not merely a process of arbitrary adoption but is synthesized according to the beliefs and customs prevailing in the local cultures. For example though modern man in western society now seems to be increasingly unwilling to live permanently in a totally secularised world (an example of east effecting the west), it is rather unlikely that in parts of the Third World where the traditional social systems have been largely shaped by religion, we will see the same degree of secularisation which has characterised Western modernization. Thus the process of filtering of inflows is very crucial. But glocalization theory also emphasizes the influence of the local on the global i.e. the global as receivers of cultures too from the local and not merely vise versa. Though this is true to some extent from the evidence available from the promotion of global mass culture etc the degree of influence of the local on the global can be challenged to a large extent. The whole process of colonialism has played a very crucial role in this unequal distribution of resources and power. Indigenous peoples though have a sense of their traditional cultures and customs, the impact of a colonial past has left its mark in their cultural behaviour whether it be the dressing sense, the food habits or even the language spoken. In these areas the western influence becomes very vivid and stark. Thus though glocalization as a theory has its merits it is not excluded from criticisms. Overall it is a useful theory to bring out the drawbacks of the globalization process as homogenizing and overarching and it also brings out the importance of contex ts and analysis at the micro-level.