Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Understanding the Nature of Groups and Teams Essay

Understanding the Nature of Groups and Teams - Essay ExampleIn intimately cases, individuals form groups, which later become a team. According to psychoanalytical object-relations theory (Sher, 2004), individuals, groups, and teams are not sovereign entities but rather are constructs that bond organizational expectations to human feelings and beliefs. Groups and teams rely on a ground substance style of management (Gilley & Kerno Jr., 2010), are influenced by the existing organizational authority, and participants show commitment because of the expectations demanded by their organizations. The bill between groups and teams is that while groups demand a lot of control, planning, and direction in its leadership, are guided by a series of well established goals and objectives, reward members depending on performance (Seat & Sundstrom, 2004), and used when executing detail functional tasks in an organization, teams demand collaborative relationships among members, are guided by a mi ssion in fulfilling their mandate (Offermann, 2006), and can exist in or outside an organization. Therefore, teams are groups with a higher figure in achieving goals because of creativity, mutual sharing of benefits, attributes, small member size mostly between 5-12 people, and a divided purpose.A group or team is always formed in handling different problems in an organization. Therefore, the management must be keen when determining which one to use for effective task performance and complimentary results. It is best to use groups in instances where tasks are easy, especially when results are expected within a specific timeframe in order to measure the expertise of each member on service delivery, and only(prenominal) if there is a well defined a guiding purpose. However, whenever the management deems there is complexity in task execution, which demands collaborative interactions, availability of enough and reliable resources, teams are given a priority (Gilley & Kerno Jr., 2010 ). In most occasions, organizations rely on teams

Monday, April 29, 2019

The Alibaba Group Holding Limited and the Aspect of Disruption Essay

The Alibaba Group Holding Limited and the Aspect of intermission - Essay ExampleNotable is that innovation within human societies is as old as level itself. However, it is only from the 19th Century onwards that the greatest level of human advancement vis--vis the period has taken has exceedingly amplified. This has, in turn, influenced the manner in which enterprises conduct their business, especially in the face of increased world-wide competition.As a Chinese e-commerce firm-entity, the Alibaba Group Holding Limited provides platforms on which online sales services commode be safely conducted, via available web portals. Most importantly is the crucial element of continuous technological advancement (Schepp & Schepp, 2010). This has availed a platform on which business can be effectively and efficiently conducted online, with some form of security assurance. With enhanced cybersecurity measures, and a growth in consumer confidence in e-commerce has availed a big-shouldered and lucrative market arena that remains significantly untapped (Nonaka & Zhu, 2012).As an entity concerned primarily with the cookery of sales services, i.e. business-to-business, consumer-to-business or consumer-to-consumer basis, the Alibaba Group is also a provider of other services. These include data-centric cloud reason services, a very successful shopping search engine and electronic payment services. It is important to nock that the entity is sector-specific, with its business strategy focusing on technology-supported and enhanced service provision.Taobao, Alibabas consumer-to-consumer internet portal is equal to Americas eBay.com. Due to the large-scale nature of the Chinese market arena, the entity features almost a billion products and brands, targeting the multi-billion consumer market. Globally, the website is amongst the 20 most-visited, accounting for over 60% of all parcels delivered in the PRC (Gifford, 2013). This in itself attests to the rapid ingestion it h asexperienced in this market, further influencing future strategies of market venturing and expansion.

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Comparing Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Comparing Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau - Essay ExampleOne of the key problems involved in the debate on justification of political ascendance is the balance in the midst of limitations imposed by any(prenominal) political authority and individual disengagedom. On the one hand, freedom is exception eithery important to the life of a person in many senses. On the other hand, an individual can not be allowed to exploit solely at his or her will there must be certain rules for behavior. Establishing this balance between individual freedom and interests of the community is the key task of any state and government which acts like a stabilizer. In case this balance is in place, the highest level of individual freedom is achieved while the risk of go into total anarchy is avoided (Popper, 1985).According to Thomas Hobbes, in prehistoric uncivilized times before any sort of government emerged, there was constant war with every man, against every man (Hobbes, 1668, p.12). Consequently, Ho bbesian justification of authority logically followed from the total brutality of human beings in their natural state characterized by intolerance ingress to authority was the only way to eliminate the brutality and intolerance of the State of Nature (Hobbes, 1668).By contrast, can Locke believed that the original state of man was not as hostile as Hobbes thought. In Lockes sentiment happiness, reason and tolerance were the core characteristics of the natural man, and all humans, in their original state, were equal and absolutely free to pursue things, considered as indisputable rights, namely life, health, liberty and possessions (Locke, 1990, par. 6). However, Lockes State of Nature is not higgledy-piggledy with every individual pursuing its own egoistic goals. Despite absence of any authority or government with the power to punish the subjects for wrong actions, Locke believed that the State of Nature was effectively regulated by morality. Since all human beings in the

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Managing marketing relationships Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Managing merchandising relationships - Article ExampleFinally, revenue does not necessarily increase with time for all types of guests (Reinartz & Kumar, 2000). But relationship marketing still has been adopted with aim to draw grater customer loyalty and relation develop methods of creating longer term relationships Lead ultimately to increase sales and profits. To build up customer loyalty, three kinds of marketing tools were designed economic, psychological (creating links) and structural (partnerships) (Berry and Parasumaran, 1991). In couch to increase loyalty relationship marketing has came into existence.Relationship marketing has been defined by Gronroos (1990, 1991, 1994) who has consistently argued for the importance of ensuring that relationships with customers should be continuously developed Marketing is to establish, maintain and enhance relationships with customers and other partners, at a profit, so that the objectives of the parties occupy are met. This is ach ieved by a Mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises. Gronroos argues that all marketing strategies lie on a continuum ranging from transactional to relational marketing where relationship marketing can be judged in terms of measures of customer retention rather than marketing share. RM requires the effective acquisition and retention of customers for the building of a more streamlined operation and ultimately, a stronger competitive position.Now being familiar with a bank doing retail banking in the country, and having 500 branches and over 2 million customers. I will try to discuss the relationship marketing strategies for the particular bank. It is an important aspect of retail banking to... The reasoning behind retaining the customer is simple i.e. if we want to be profitable and increase it, hold on to the good customers. To identify the good customers bank has divided the customers in several tiers in terms of lucrativeness and that these tiers often have quite different s ervice expectations and needs. harmonise to Valarie Zeithaml, Roland Rust and Katharine Lemony (2001) its critical that organizations must understand the needs of customers. Customers within different profitability tiers and adjust their service level accordingly. Bank has developed customers around various levels of contribution, different needs (including sensitivities to much(prenominal) variables as price, comfort and speed) and identifiable personal profiles such as demographics. Bank has stratified its customers according to their requirements. At the top level, customers, who constitute a very small part of a banks customer base. They are heavy users of services and contribute a large share of the profits generated in the bank. typically this segment is relatively less price sensitive but expects highest service levels in return and is in all likelihood to willing to invest in and try new services. The next tier forms a larger percentage of customers than the top ones and contributes less profit to the bank in comparison to top ones. They pitch to be slightly more price sensitive and less committed to the firm. The third level of customers provides the sight of customer base.

Friday, April 26, 2019

Response to Intervention Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Response to Intervention - Essay patternThe case prove shows how response to intervention might work in preschools. Possible advantages, problem argonas, and apply implications are discussed.The promise of a response to intervention (RTI) framework stems from its focus on prevention, empirically ground and sequentially designed interventions, progress monitoring, and data-based decision making. Prevention is used in two ship canal (a) long-term prevention of risk and (b) specific prevention of gainsay carriages through instructional and antecedent environmental interventions (e.g., Neilsen & McEvoy, 2004). Building on discussions of RTI as a broad-spectrum model (e.g., Batsche et al., 2005), one that encompasses variables to reduce social and academic risks, this member presents RTI as a potential method of answering preschool service delivery questions.Following a first appearance of a context for challenging behaviors and a RTI model that includes strategies for addressing primordial risk indicators, a case study demonst pass judgment its application in a Head Start setting. Advantages, challenges, and role implications are discussed.In the present use, challenging refers to inappropriate, disturbing, or harmful behaviors that might be pervasive social excesses or deficits, situational disturbances, low activity engagement, and periodic crises. Extreme challenges have included highly aggressive children with other characteristics such as minimal quarrel and behaviors such as elopement (e.g., Tarbox, Wallace, & Williams, 2003). Most evident has been the amount of child risk, need for family support, and the deleterious effects on classrooms (e.g., Carr, Taylor, & Robinson, 1991).In the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA 04 IDEIA, 2004), these early challenges are variously referred to as emotional and behavior problems that might lead to serious emotional disturbance, possible characteristics of autism spectrum di sorders, or inappropriate behaviors of children described as handicapped that might require positive behavior interventions and supports. Internalizing, externalizing, or psychiatric classifications may be used. RTI provides a in operation(p) classification system that fits the challenges of young children and that may avoid inappropriate labeling (Barnett, Bell, Gilkey et al., 1999).Prevalence estimates for behavioral challenges show rates as high as 7-25% in preschool populations, with higher estimates in high-risk populations (e.g., Feil, Walker, Severson, & Ball, 2000 Qi & Kaiser, 2003). Waiting for children who are at risk to begin schooling is late for prevention and intervention as considerable inquiry links early challenges to later serious problems of adjustment (e.g., Campbell, Pierce, March, Ewing, & Szumowski, 1994).RTI in Preschools and Head StartFoundations exist for RTI components in preschools, including systemswide early intervention, positive supports, and proble m solving (IDEIA 04 Prasse, 2006). RTI principles might be applied generally in early childhood, but here we focus on a Head Start program because these programs serve children and families

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Nursing research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 36

Nursing inquiry - Essay sheathOn the other hand, the hospitals organizational culture should implement intervention measures that promoted a appurtenant environment to influence the research culture in the organization and ensure that staff members were positive towards the benefits of utilizing research in their practice.In every profession, challenges abound in the implementation of various practices. In nursing, there atomic number 18 difficulties that are associated with evidence-based base hit practices. First,nursing researchers engage insafety practices without identifying the strength and type of evidence base. In addition, there is no specific and clear approach during the consideration of the context of the evidence base, which affects the prioritizing of patient safety initiatives. On the other hand, most hospitals lack fitting and reliable data on safety, which challenges the reasons for an organization to move over to an evidence-based safety practice. Moreover, a one-time instructive education does not sufficiently address or bring interpolate in practice, which implies that, a one-time education on a particular safety intervention is not sufficient since it requires many more instructive programs. Hence, an organization is affected by various safety intervention needthat require many instructive programs to be carried out, which is

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Marketing Mix Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Marketing Mix Project - Essay interpreterAn other important criterion that needs to be highlighted is that the target group has to be clearly examined. The terms and the product provide some directions in recognizing the right audience.Choi, et al., (2014) defined marketing mix as the make up of strategies that a company applies to promote and advertise its goods or services. It is the crux of marketing process. It has to be reviewed constantly to pick up the changing requirements. The changes in the external environment and changes within the firm necessitate alterations in the mix. There are 4Ps which typically constitute a marketing mix. They are Place, Price, Promotion and Price. However, it has started including other Ps as rise up like positioning, people, packaging and politics.Nike, Inc. is a renowned designer and manufacturer of footwear, services, accessories, apparel and equipment. It is an American Multinational lot established in 1971. It was earlier founded by th e name Blue Ribbon Sports by Bill Bowerman and Phil sawbuck (Gordon, 2012).Product mix is defined as the total variety of goods or services offered by the company. Nike Inc. provides a wide range of products like athletic footwear like running shoes, cleats and apparels that include jerseys, work clothes, shorts, sports equipments for wide range of sports like baseball, tennis, ice hockey, soccer, cricket, basketball, golf, athletics, combat sports, cross training for men, women and children, etc (Huang & Sarigll, 2012). It also manufactures shoes for other outdoor sports and activities like cycling, volleyball, wrestling, cheerleading, auto racing, aquatic sports, etc. Apparels also include urban fashion clothing. The startle line of shoes released by Nike, Inc. in 1987 was Nike Air Max. Air Huarache, an additional line of products, was introduced in 1992. The new(a) lines of goods that are recently added are the Nike NYX, Nike 6.0 and Nike SB shoes especially designed for

Practical Guide to Effective Leadership for School Managers Essay

Practical Guide to Effective Leadership for School Managers - Essay ExampleOne of the benefits that such(prenominal) a practical guide has is with relation to its ability to highlight key issues and problem areas that allow for plausibly remain for the duration of time in which the practical guide it egotism will be engaged. In such a way, a train of self analysis is needed to be performed that that once a designate or approach has been completed, a level of inference stop be drawn with regards to those areas that could be improve upon as well as noting and further improving those areas that proved to be key successes within the motion (Avant, 2010). As a means of this, the following analysis will seek to provide a level of discussion onto the key areas in which the skills that will be noted developed as a berth of individual growth as well as teamwork. Furthermore, the mistakes and difficulties that are doubtless to be experienced will also be discussed as a means of seeki ng to find ways in which own(prenominal) and professional development can be promoted to a higher degree within the individual schooltime of the current time as well as the future. Although an exhaustive study of these personal and professional factors would study a dissertation length response, this brief analysis will seek to hone in on three unique skills which can be developed through the course of eitherday activities and seek to utilize these as a starting point for related difficulties and weaknesses that proved to be key roadblocks, although not insurmountcapable, in the process (Wilson, 1992). A primary skill that must be developed and leveraged at each and every stage is with regards to ensuring that lines of communication remain upon and healthy. Without this fundamental aspect, it is impossible for the flow of information to allow for a typewrite of self-correcting entity to form that is capable of responding to threats and opportunities (Beccera & Gupta, 2003). Lik e any other institution/organization, it is the requirement of the educational organization to train that telling forms of communication be maintained and leveraged at each and every stage so that the entity can continue to express a degree of growth and development that is befitting of the times and demands upon which the environment consists (Elida-Tomita, 2010). Similarly, some other key strength that must be sought to be engaged in order for effective communication to take place on any level is the ability of leadership to be able to interact with and gauge the needs that the organization puts forward almost invariably accomplished via the process of self analysis and introspective means of measurement.

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Science Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Science - Assignment ExampleThe research conducted revealed that health check checkup faction theories atomic number 18 known and endorsed predicting many health behaviors. Individuals endorsing these theories ar normal thus conspiracies arise from common process of attribution. The medical conspiracies act as diagnostic tools for many health practitioners since conspiracies do not follow the traditional medical advice.There are numerous ways to categorize faction theories. Individuals who tend to believe in conspiracy theories endorse a fictitious theory that is made up for experimental purposes. Personality and belief variables are significantly related to conspiracy theories. This results into the question the question of what factors account for variance in conspiracy theories? The psychologist in this study has been unable to come up with factors that account for more than 10% of the common variance (Furnham 5). Thus, single(a) difference variables explain little of varia nce in such beliefs. This is in consideration that beliefs in conspiracy theories are widespread across the

Monday, April 22, 2019

Impacts of technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Impacts of technology - Essay ExampleThe greatest impact of technology can be experience in the way we communicate. The rise of social networking sites such(prenominal) as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and video blogging sites such as YouTube etc., has do it possible for merging of cultures beyond people from across various continents and enabled a valuable and meaningful permutation of teaching. It has played a key role in promoting cultural tolerance and greater political participation, empowering the citizens in the process.However despite the varied benefits offered by the breeding, entertainment and communication technologies, the perils of excessive dependence on such technologies are manifold. One of the greatest challenges faced by users in the digital world includes privacy issues and individualism theft. Violation of privacy has been one of the most significant enduring social issues associated with digital and electronic information technologies, globally. The article Is online social club, sharing is the point until it goes too far the authors have highlighted the downside of social networking sites, mostly meet privacy issues, mirroring the sentiments of millions of people of this virtual lounge, who feel threatened and vulnerable due to constant threats of being stalk and misuse of their private information (The Washington Post).The key goal of social networking sites is to enable sharing of information and free and faster exchange of information across countries. The paradox however lies in the fact that unlike to the intended benefits of the social media there are increasing reports stating the contrary. The article Does the Internet make as only(a)? discusses the potential effects of internet and technology on the society and the manner in which it has managed to alienate people. loving scientists have indicated a drastic rise in reports stating that as more and more

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Business Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business Studies - Essay ExampleThe customers interested in jeans do linear perspective Levi Strauss as a brand that could be trusted. Thus, the positive customer perception is further bolstered by the obligate that the company has over the varied aspects of the apparel business that is purchase, production, marketing and sales. Besides, the company has also made healthful inroads into the new product lines through diversification, which portends a positive future. The company does has the financial resources at its governing body to be invested into new product lines and entering new markets. However, it does need to be mentioned that the strengths acquired by the company came with a ponderous price. The company did come prohibited with some product lines like the permanent press slacks, the denim dishwashing suit and the disposable sheets and towels, which did not gel with the already quick product lines and lead to considerable losses. So the company needs to avoid enterin g into such flop product lines (Adcock 2000, p. 90). This may jeopardize the blind drunk brand image of Levi Strauss and dilute customer perceptions (Reddy 1994, p. 129). ... In that sense, Levi Strauss has a viable opportunity at its disposal to garner the ascending interest of these customers by expanding into such product lines. The biggest threat that the company faces is relying predominantly on the established product lines, which may fade away soon (Gilley 2005). Besides, a less than proactive spot may give advantage to the other established competitors. Also, expanding into product lines that do not deliver the judge customer satisfaction may dilute the brand appeal of the company. Hence, the best possible way out for the company is to expand into product lines that cater to the proceeding tastes and requirements of the already loyal customer base, while desisting from venturing into lines that devil away the exiting brand reputation, while extending unwanted advantage t o the established competitors. Reference List Adcock, Dennis 2000, Marketing Strategies for war-ridden Advantage, Wiley, New York. Gilligan, Colin & Wilson, Richard MS 2003, Strategic Marketing Planning, Butterworth Heinemann, Boston. Gilley, Ann 2005, The Manager as Change Leader, Praeger, Westport, CT. Golembiewski, Robert T 2000, Handbook of organizational Consultation, Marcel Dekker, New York. Reddy, Allan C 1994, Total Quality Marketing, Quorum Books, Westport, CT. Part II. McDonalds and the Health Conscious Consumer It goes without motto that McDonalds has been a leading fast food brand not only in the US, scarcely in a more current context, the world over. However, with the consumers getting more health conscious and the adapted health trends like the rising number of obese people within the population, many of the McDonalds existing product lines that also happened to be high calorie products are

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Econimics course work Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Econimics course work - Coursework deterrent exampleThis puts high power incentives as a risky actor of having things done in an organization. If the management arrangement is not strong and if means of monitoring and evaluation is not keen, then employees could use dubious means to have their goals realized. This could put an organization in the edge of losing its face and reputation. Applying high power incentives also has a tendency of narrowing the capacity of employees (Campbell, 76). They would largely concent sum up on one endeavor wherein there is a promise while at the same time neglecting other atomic number 18as that may not be of nifty urgency but of equal priority. This may also lead to an extensive malfunction of other departmental organizations and functionalities. These make high power incentives not appropriate for motivating employees. Various tasks are best performed by contract. These include much(prenominal) tasks that need external audit that internal empl oyees should not do. Also tasks that require expertness attention that may not be found within the organization warrants a contract. Tasks, which may burst the secrets of the organization, are good if they are contracted unless under examined ethical conditions. Internal employees best do such tasks. 2. Issues related to the organization of the firm ( cause between Asphalt Acres and Auto Engineering Comp from each one) The main aspire of a contract is formalizing an agreement between parties. The agreement has to be mutu bothy agreed upon and legally consented to. Contract often encompasses a wider range of things in this case, the use of a property, price of items and facility, open knowledge of any due charges. The contract relationship, terms of dispute settlement, and terms and conditions underlying work for hire have to be made clear. Since the pricing of the property and any other charges underlying the contract has to be made by Asphalt Acres, it would be proper for the Au to Engineering Company ensure that they evaluate these terms if they are commensurate to the profitability of the whole project. It is also key to determine the cost of other options available lest they depart the risk of being exploited. All issues in a contract have to be made clear, all the hidden chares may interfere with the relationship of the contract, and therefore the Auto Engineering Company should not look at any vagueness related to the issues of the contract. All charges have to be made clear to debar any conflict. Additionally, to avoid any conflict of interest, the relationship, and the management of the field has to be made clear. The offer has to be of value and of massive benefit to both parties. They also have to determine their terms of management and clearly determine the roles of each company in the field to avoid any confusion that may arise. 4. Transfer values Transfer of pricing refers to the analysis, charge adjustment, and price setting made between Parties of related interest trading on goods and services. Price transfer is an important determinant of how the prices and interests are accrued between the parties. The transfer of pricing also determines the rate of taxes. Allocation of resources is also determined by the determined by the existing prices among the components. Price transfer is important for the tax administrators and taxpayers due to their importance in determining the income, expenses,

Friday, April 19, 2019

The Family in the UK today is in crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Family in the UK at once is in crisis - try out Exampleabsence of fathers in the lives of their children.2 Aside from the after effect of the feminist movement on tralatitious family lifestyle, Burgess (1926) states that industrialization and modernization also creates a signifincant impact over the continuously changing functions on atomic family in our society.3With regards to the increasing rate of disarticulate in UK, the essence of a child personally knowing and growing up with his/ her biological parents is highly affected. As a result, a lot of accessible consequences are becoming significant in the lives of the local citizens. In order to determine whether the family in UK today is in crisis, the researcher will examine the tr overthrow related to divorce rate, crime rate, employment rate, ahead of time abortion rate and the decline in the UK population as well as its corresponding consequences in our society.One of the main causes of crime is due to poor parenting which is often associated with broken family.4 Many times, children who grew up with a broken family either causes an aggressive behavior or inferiority complex among the children.5 Eventually, these young individuals may end up searching for other alternative ways such as joining a gangster or end up using drugs and alcohol in order to divert their attention from their family issues.6 In line with this matter, Slapper (1997a, 1997b) suggest that parents who practice poor parenting should be controlled by imposing them a penalty.7 well-disposed and economic resources of each family could affect the parents capacity to regulate their childrens behaviour.8 In a traditional nuclear family structure, in case the father could not provide sufficient monetary income for the needs of the family, the wife has no choice but to go out of the house to work.Based on the report that was released by the duty for National Statistics in 2006, divorce rate in England and Wales fell by 7% as compar ed to 2005.9 Eventhough divorce rate in UK dropped from 13.1 to 12.2 persons

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Managing under uncertainty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Managing chthonic uncertainty - Essay ExampleThis contributes to the different performances of companies that deal with products or services in a resembling field. However, urgencies, as well as external and internal conditions influence the decision making of the management in organizations, whose effect could be unanticipated. Having been in operation for slightly more than 10 years, a growing headache was soon headed for failure. Call it RIMPA for confidential purposes it was established to offer transportation services for companies dealing with large cargo. Eventually, its in operation(p) commercial vehicles were hired by government companies, and beer and bottling firms, let alone the private and small scale firms. The accompany also run parallel businesses in agriculture and had various investments within the country. In the hard sparing times of the 2007 to 2008 global recession, RIMPA had complex problems with its management branches. What later followed was questionabl e resource depletion and bankruptcy in some(prenominal) branches, since they were managed separately. The problems called for quick remedy to prevent further loss and keep the business operational. Each branch had its tutor and a team of advisors as its board, then lower the operational managers, then the employees. In the general context, the pennant executives of the general company were separate, but involved with decisions at the branch level. Various factors were not adding up, from accounting, management, to performances and the top executives had to stones throw in to make the decisions. Due to the deteriorated performances and losses in three branches, they were offered for sale to minimize the loss. The managers had 3 months boundary notices for what the executives believed was lost trust and management discrepancies. It was evident that the aim of their decision was to cut down costs that were already spreading to the performing branches. Initially, before their grand decision, there were some efforts to bail them out, which were initiated by the branches management though never successful. In the long run, the grand decision managed to save the little left, not to mention that the gross sales of the branches were at a loss. A good number of employees were laid off, but that ended up in court, as they sought for compensation. The whole touch bear on the rest of the branches. The employees salaries were shrunk by 18 percent, from the middle managers to the least(prenominal) employees. As though never enough, the top management decided to increase the cost of their services by 12 % to maintain profits. In less than 2 months, most employees had resigned for better paying jobs in otherwise companies. The companys clients had also reduced their requests for services, since they opted for alternative means to transport their goods. Explaining the Decision using delimited Rationality Theory The implications of a decision can be difficult to detec t in the beginning. virtually of them unfold with time, or even develop into a complex problem if not well controlled. It is unambiguous that most people would feel that the decisions made in RIMPA were probably out of scope. However, placed in the situation and with similar constraints, making such decisions would have been inevitable. For this reason, the decision behavior of the top executives must have been affected by their limited cognitive capabilities. The decision behavior of humans cannot conform to the idea of full grounds because they lack unlimited cognitive capabilities (Selten, 1999). Hence, it was reasonable for the top executives

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Effective Assessment Practices Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Effective Assessment Practices Paper - examine Example1. Assess scholarly person readiness for learning -- Any information that the student needs is obtainable to them in some way. Usually this material is part of the syllabus. It will include each pre-requisites for the course that be needed, the ways that are acceptable for the course to be completed (how to submit assignments etcetera) and the consequences of cheating or plagiarism.2. reading objectives, instructional and opinion activities are aligned -- students will be informed in this section intimately the criteria that will be used to evaluate discussions, core concepts, rank and assignments as well as student projects. Due dates will be clear and each student will know what is expected.3. Multiple assessment strategies -- This section evaluates the different types of assessment that include things like reference lists of materials students can use, options for the assignments, tests and quizzes, papers or projects and any other type of assessment that the instructor feels is necessary for the course to be completed.4. Regular feedback -- students should receive feedback quick from the instructor and the teacher should guide the student for improvement. Rubrics are important to allow all students to know what is expected, the grading scale is described and if necessary there are practice exercises.5. Self-assessments and peer feedback -- some instructors include self-importance assessment practice assignments that they make available to students before tests. Others have specific questions, have peer review or students get to apply their work to rubrics.1. Evaluation criteria -- criteria should reflect instruction, the essence or key attributes of a skill or body of knowledge to be mastered and all criteria must be pliable (students must be able to improve).1. DFN 12012 Assessment for Cardiovascular Respiratory Renal Block (Appendix A)-- this rubric does not meet the criteria for a good rub ric. The rubric asks students

The Interprofessional Working Environment with Vulnerable Adult with Essay

The Inter schoolmaster Working Environment with Vulnerable Adult with Learning Disabilities - Essay typeAs individuals, health practitioners and society are informed, take concern and progressive actions, various professional groups support by g overnment institutions and private ones are assigned either by choice or by obligation to individuals that need the help and assistance to lead a healthful, normal productive life.This study would fork over to delineate the current status of interprofessional working condition with regards to government programs and support, public and private agenda and contributions, as well as the actual process, problems and situations involved in being an occupational therapist with a defenceless adult with learning difference.Occupational therapists (OTs) work with individuals with mental, physical, emotional or developmental disabilities to help them improve their great power to do everyday tasks at home and at work (BLS, 2005) with the goal to make clients gestate independent, productive, healthy and satisfying lives.The Deaprtment of Health through the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom bequeath for the necessary support in order to attain a holistic output in any efforts undertaken by both the health and social services sector. As the agency mutate and change over time adopting new policies and programs and discarding those which they deemed outmoded and outdated, professional groups from various agencies are hauled in the scene altogether.Pietroni (1994) described inter-working professional relations developed through hospital teamwork among surgical teams and mental health teams. But the Community cover Act further required social care assessment so that team membership became extended to psychologists, psychiatrists, counsellors, occupational therapists, pharmacists, and most recently, music and art therapists. But also a part of the growing intercommunicate are from education, housing, court s olicitors, voluntary and private sectors (Kingdon, 1992). Stott (1995) observed that by 1990s, the practice-based primary care in the UK have developed into a continuing and comprehensive care that shifted away from the personal doctor. West (1994) added that challenge is already focused to continuing personal care as well as achieving effective teamwork through share vision, objectives and protocols.The 28 Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) were introduced in 2002 that led to strategic developments that disbanded former health regime and also underlined a major NHS issue which is constant change (Leathard, 2003). So that with this preconception, change has been equated to policies and legislations that affect health and social care since.As agencies and professionals with differing background and duties come together to handle individuals with special needs such as vulnerable adults with learning disabilities, a work environment is changed. Many believe that evaluation is paci fy much needed but more also support his integration of different professionals.In a study conducted by Fawcett (2002), it was indicated that among 183 adults who self-reported learning disabilities, over 60 percent admitted that the disabilities persist into adult life. This is prevailing imprint as well as a fact that beseech individuals with LD. Here, occupational

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Basic Prerequisite Skills for the Global Workplace Essay Example for Free

Basic Prerequisite Skills for the international Workplace EssayOutline many of the main issues facing racyer education in the twenty-first century. To what extent is higher education an effective means of both obtaining employ and learning the basic requirement skills for the global workplace? Higher Education is one of the most important phenomenons in the 21st century. It is undergoing well-nigh major transformations and developments which are mainly effected by Globalization. Such as, international education, global capitalism, spread of shade and media, trade and work.Thus, its crucial to interpret the term of Globalization, which becomes a major backdrop of other phenomenon, including high education. Certainly, higher education provides prerequisite skills and higher life opportunities to people. However, the education system today is facing some challenges. There is over-education and over- supply of educational institution and the change of the global labour market. Higher education provides to a greater extent chances for people to obtaining jobs. People who graduated from university are highly employable due to their wealth knowledge, creativity and expertness of solving problems.According to the research of Yue et al. (2004) The level of education level has a significantly positive advert on successful job seeking. The higher the education level, the greater the probability of success. Which indicated that higher education get along a positive effective to people in job seeking as well as working in a favorable position. The reputation of the higher education institution also has a significant and positive impact on employment. Graduates from key universities have greater employment probabilities than their counterparts from ordinary universities.The employment rate of graduates of public institutions is significantly higher than for private institutions. (Li, 2008, p8) Moreover, a good paper qualification helps you guide the attention of the boss. Employers are preferred to hire a more promising candidate with a smash degree than someone whos just out of school, without a pretty diploma. Furthermore,people who studied in university can achieve more information about potential employment from universities or collages have apparent advantages both in employment probability and the starting salary. (Spence,1973Stiglitz,1975).

Monday, April 15, 2019

Should Exams Be Abolished Essay Example for Free

Should Exams Be Abolished EssayAccording to a recent survey of Education Newspaper, what excite students to be frightened the most is exams. Some students say that the exams should be abolished because they make students absolutely anxious and stressful. However, the exams lend an important role in schools life and also have many advantages. So I believe that the exams should not be abolished because of some reasons. The most important reason is that exams are a method to examine students level and .Depending on results of exams teachers can determine how students acquire knowledge. If marks are from 7-10 that call back students apprehend well the content of subjects, teachers will give them some difficult exercises to help students develop their creation. On the other hand, if marks are below 7 that mean students dont understand clearly the subjects.In addition, after doing exams, students can know more about their knowledge. Students will determine what are atonic points, where are the holes in their knowledge. From these, students review these parts in order not to puzzle when do them afterward Another reason is that exams make students to study harder. Some fast or mini exams will tweet students to fall the classes frequently.Some teachers dont want to remind when students have mini exams. Any time teachers agree some interesting exercises, teachers will gives students do those which are like mini tests. If students dont attend class those days, they will lose one or two column marks, which make their mid-term results low Its true that exams make students stressful and anxious. Some students say that when exams come near, they have to cram a cope of lesson in short time, which make them exhaust.That is the reason why students wish exams would be abolished. However, these pressures arent caused by exams tho students. During the studying, students should take note the main points of each subject and review after classes. And when they have exa ms, they just train again moreover can remember the important information. They no longer olfactory perception stressful in order to cram the lessons. Moreover, if there are no the exams, how can students examine their levels? They study more and more, but they dont know what the destinations are and how many percents they apprehend the knowledge after studying. As the result, they feel vague and bored. In the end, students studying will not be effective if there are no exams. Although they make students absolutely anxious, theyshouldnt be abolished.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Literary Analysis of Shakespeare’s Hamlet Essay Example for Free

Literary Analysis of Shakespeares juncture prohibiteavorIn the position rebirth, identity was an important head ache, routineicularly the construction of identity. As Stephen Greenblatt argues, there is in the aboriginal modern period a change in the intellectual, social, psychological, and aesthetic structures that g overn the generation of identities that is non tot every(prenominal)y complex barely resolutely dialectical (1). The identity of the sovereign was of particular importance how monarchs shaped their testify identities, and how these identities affected their subjects.Taking Greenblatts argument, this paper examines the construction and manipulation of identity in Shakespeares juncture in particular, the shipway in which Elizabeth Is self-representations inform the play. In addition, the paper will show how the char corresponderization of crossroads is shaped by the rule of Elizabeth I, who ascendencelight-emitting diode her public image through elabo rately constructed self-representations. Reflecting her use of these representations, hamlet, who possesses stereotypically feminine attri justes, fights to recreate himself as a masculine character to recover his familys and kingdoms honor.The late Elizabethan period was filled with anxiety and diswhitethorn over the aging of poof Elizabeth I. Concern about her impending expiration was solely(prenominal) made worse by her refusal to name a substitution. When Shakespeare composed village in 1600, the playwright was subject to an aging, infirm fairy, who at lxvii had left no heirs to the slope throne. In village, Shakespeare thus addresses cardinal policy-making problems that England faced at the commencement exercise of the ordinal-century royal succession and fe manly sovereignty. As Tennenhouse argues, History plays could not be written after hamlet, because the full-page matter of transferring power from one monarch to an new(prenominal) had to be rethought in in sure of the aging system of the queen (85). The preoccupation of the side public with who would become their new ruler, along with eager laughipation of male kingship, is expressed throughout Hamlet. Although the play is not written as a political allegory, undeniable similarities do exist in the midst of aspects of Queen Elizabeth Is public persona and the character of Hamlet. Before further explaining this comparison, however, it is necessary to pick out how Elizabeth I shaped her public persona.Elizabeth Is Image As head of the Angli scum bag Church, Elizabeth I was wary to find herself in marriage with a Catholic. Accordingly, Carole Levin argues that Elizabeth I promoted the image of herself as a pristine maiden hygienic into the middle and advanced years of her life Elizabeth presented herself to her sight as a symbol of virginity, a thoroughgoing(a) Queen (64). Whether political or personal, her refusal to marry was in many ways advantageous, for she avoided the disas ter of bloody shame Is scoff with Phillip II. Yet it also caused a great deal of concern among the populace.As Levin observes, by not marrying, Elizabeth also refused the most obvious function of being a queen, that of bearing a child. Nor would she name a successor as Parliament begged her to do, since Elizabeth was convinced this would increase, quite a than ease, both the political tension and her personal danger (66). Elizabeth Is system to retain political power may have prevented the usurpation of her authority by a husband, simply it did cause disfavor among the English citizens, especially as she grew older without announcing an heir.Anxiety over the succession led to discourtesy for Elizabeth I, with many people gossiping that she did not marry because she was an unnatural womanhood. Levin writes, there were rumors that Elizabeth had an impediment that would interdict regular sexual relations (86). Levin results an example for these rumors in an excerpt of a letter from her cousin Mary Stuart indubitably you are not deal other women, and it is folly to advance the notion of your marriage with the Duke of Alencon, perceive that such a conjugal union would never be consummated (86).Others claimed that Elizabeth I had illegitimate children who were unbroken secret (Levin 85). These accusations indicate that English citizens, as well as family relations, perceived Elizabeth Fs prolonged maidenhood as unnatural and even monstrous. Although Elizabeth I was willing to admit to Parliament that she had spent much of her expertness, she was careful to go the image of herself as a young woman to the public. One important example of this method is the famous Rainbow Portrait, which Elizabeth I commissioned in approximately 1600, the same period Hamlet was written.Even though Elizabeth I was sixty-seven years old when the painting was commissioned, she appears in the painting to be a young woman (Levin). Elizabeth I created an intricate and diverse image of herself. As an unmarried monarch, she became Englands Virgin Queen. Possessing two bodies, Elizabeth I set up masculine authority as Prince and as mother to her subjects. As Elizabeth I grew older, she relied on iconography to deceive the English populace into viewing her as young and vital. These diverse representations of Elizabeth I are complexly reflected in Hamlet.The similarities between Elizabeth I and Gertrude are obvious both women are perceived as indulgent, sensuous monarchs and are criticized for attempting to act like women younger than their true ages. To Gertrude, Hamlet even states, O shame, where is thy blush? (3. 4. 91). Despite these correspondences, a more than interesting analogy exists between Elizabeth I and the character of Hamlet. The paper will compare Elizabeth I, who claimed to have the embrace and place upright of a king (Levin 1) with Hamlet, a prince often castigated for acting in a stereotypically feminine manner. Reflections of Elizabe th Is Constructed Identities in HamletOne attempt by Elizabeth I to maintain her image as the Virgin Queen was a use of heavy cosmetics in an effort to make herself look younger and therefore stronger. Mullaney quotes Jesuitical priest Anthony Rivers as describing Elizabeth Is makeup at few celebrations in 1600, when Hamlet was written, to be in some places near half an inch thick (147). Unfortunately for Elizabeth I, this attempt to hide the weakness of her age seems only to have exacerbated her subjects contempt for the assumed weakness of her sex. M. P. Tilley observes that during the late Elizabethan period, there was a strong quality against a woman using cosmetics (312).Women who used cosmetics, according to popular feeling, altered their bodies, the creations of God, and were therefore not only immodest but blasphemous. According to Mullaney, women who used cosmetics considered to be false women because they created a deceptive face to supercede the one given to them by Go d altering their natural female appearance made them not truly women. Not only were cosmetics blasphemous and dishonest, they were physically destructive. A woman who painted her face in the Renaissance thus arguably destroyed her person in every way possible spiritually and bodily.Hamlet displays notable disgust toward painted women, yet critics have overlooked that many of the contemporary Renaissance objections to womens use of cosmetics apply to Hamlets actions. Similar to the way that painted women used cosmetics to disguise the faces that God had given them, Hamlet localises on his antic disposition to disguise the faculties of reason which God has given him (1. 5. 192), faculties which in the Renaissance were an demand aspect of the virtuous man. Whether or not Hamlet is truly mad, he constructs a persona to dissimulate his purpose of penalize.Painted women were disparaged for poisoning their personify with dangerous chemicals Hamlet engages in a dangerous involve to str ike back his father, and because of his quest for revenge, he is fatally poisoned. By assuming an antic disposition, a false face, Hamlet is physically poisoned by the bated sword of Laertes. Laertes poison destroys Hamlets body natural and symbolically disrupts the body politic, since Hamlet will be unable to rule Denmark. In addition to putting on an antic disposition, a type of face painting, Hamlet possesses other womanly attributes that would arguably have caused some anxiety.Mullaney asserts that popular notion in the Renaissance, especially in the final years of Elizabeth Is reign, was against the rule of a female monarch. The English people had always been hesitant to accept a female queen as Elizabeth I grew older and more infirm, their tolerance for being ruled by a woman diminished. Mullaney further argues that this intolerance was a part of the English subjects realization that Elizabeth I was feeble and politically weakening for the Renaissance misogyny may in fact be an integral part of the mourning process when the lost object or angel being processed is a woman, especially but not exclusively when that woman is a queen of England, too (140). As the English publics grief for the decline of their queens strength increased, so too did their contempt for her bodily weakness and inability to govern effectively. Reflecting anxiety about Elizabeths I old age and infirmity, Hamlet displays a stereotypically feminine quality that makes him problematic as heir to the Danish throne.Early in the play, Claudius chides Hamlet for his unmanly grief concerning the passing of his father (1. 2. 98). Elaine Showalter claims that Hamlets emotional vulnerability can readily be conceptualized as feminine (223). Discussing Hamlets creation of a mad persona, Carol Thomas Neely also lists passivity and loss of control among Hamlets feminine attributes during his period of wildness (326). Hamlets emotional vulnerability and passivity, when considered in the politica lly-charged atmosphere of the late Elizabethan period, can even be seen as his d professfall.Mullaney, quoting Tennenhouse, argues that Hamlet is a play keenly aware of its late Elizabethan status, in which the impending transfer of power from one monarch to other had to be rethought in view of the aging body of the queen (149). He goes on to view Hamlet as inhabiting a male-constructed orb. Mullaney asserts that like other Shakespearean males, Hamlet achieves a partial if suicidal resolution of the contradictions of patriarchy by constructing a world that is not so much gendered as free from gender differentiationa world that is all male (158).It is believable that Hamlets true problem is actually the oppositehis world is too female, or rather feminine. Despite the small number of females in the play, Hamlet presents a feminine character in a male body, a twisted reflection of Elizabeth I, who claimed to have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but the mall and stomach of a ki ng (Levin 1). Hamlet possesses the body of a prince, but the heart and stomach of a woman a fusion which was particularly problematic in the misogynistic environment that prevailed during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.As a feminine character in the body of a male, particularly one who, as Claudius observes, is most immediate to the throne (1. 2. 113), Hamlet cannot be allowed to survive and assume the throne. His oddment, as well as the passage of the Danish monarchy to the quintessential warrior figure, Fortinbras, reflects the transition of the throne from Elizabeth I to James I. James Is ascension to the English throne alleviated some anxiety of female sovereignty, although his reign showed his peevish, cowardly, and self-indulgent disposition.When Hamlet puts on an antic disposition, crafting himself as mad, he evinces natural traits that are usually associated with feminine weakness. Hamlet is beset with passivity and indecision, two qualities often ascribed to women in the Renaissance (Woodbridge 275-99). Passivity and indecision impede and nearly thwart his quest to accompany his fathers demand for revenge. Davis D. McElroy claims that Hamlet, in addition to considering the ghosts exhortation to avenge him, contemplates taking no action at all. McElroy examines the curtain raising five lines of the to be or not to be soliloquy To be, or not to be, that is the questionWhether is nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing, end them. (3. 1. 64-8) McElroy alleges that these lines, which are generally believed to be Hamlets argument regarding suicide, constitute a different deliberation on revenge killing Claudius, as the alleged ghost of his father demands, or taking no action at alla more cowardly decision, certainly, but definitely safer. McElroy compares the two options by examining the rhetoric of chiasmusclaiming that to be refers to taking arms again st Claudius and not to be refers to suffering outrageous fortune. He argues that the speech pertains more moderately to revenge than suicide because killing oneself is more like avoiding ones troubles than opposing them (544). It can be posited that Hamlets indecision concerning his consecrate to avenge his father parallels Elizabeth Fs refusal to name an heir. As Tennenhouse observes, Where Claudius would be second to Hamlet and Hamlets line in a patrilineal system, the queens husband and uncle of the kings son occupies the privileged male position in a matrilinear system... It is to be expected that Claudius could not legally possess the crown, the matrilinear succession having the weaker claim on British political thinking. (89) Hamlets duty is not merely to uphold his promise of vengeance. He also has an obligation to his republic to see Claudius removed from the throne and Hamlet, the rightful ruler in patrilineal succession, put in his place. When Hamlet contemplates neglec ting this obligation, he endangers the succession to the Danish throne in much the same way that Elizabeth Is secrecy concerning her own succession endangers England.Arguably, Hamlet fails in his responsibility to protect the Danish succession after Hamlets death, Fortinbras, a Norwegian, assumes the throne. Although Fortinbras is a better candidate than the corrupt Claudius, he is a member of Norways royal line, not Denmarks. Elizabeth Is refusal to marry consigns England to a similar fate regarding kingship and royal lines. James I is a member of the British royal family, but he is a Stuart, not a Tudor. As the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth I secures her own power by refusing to name a successor during her life measure, but she allows her familial line to die with her.Elizabeth I also defend her political authority by crafting several personas. As seen in the Rainbow Portrait, she took liberally from mythological figures, such as Astraea, Flora, and Diana. Just as Elizabeth I appropria ted the appearance and muliebrity of goddesses, Hamlet appropriates the masculine authority he observes in Fortinbras. Hamlet attempts to construct a persona that goes beyond an antic disposition, wanting to fashion himself as a strong son and leader of Denmark.After hearing of Fortinbrass plan to attack a desolate scope of Poland, Hamlet resolves to emulate the militant Fortinbras by fashioning himself as a bloody avenger How stem I, then, That have a father killed, a mother stained, Excitements of my reason and my blood, And let all sleep O, from this time forth My thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth (4. 4. 59-62, 68-9) Although Hamlet desires to construct himself as an aggressive and violent fighter, he is never able to attain Fortinbrass forcefulness. Hamlets passivity here shows weakness and debility, not qualities appropriate in a military leader or a monarch.Although Hamlet attempts to assume the maleness of Fortinbras, shaping himself as a potent agent of revenge, Ha mlets attempted emulation of Fortinbrass masculinity is merely another false front. Hamlet recognizes his own passivity, but however much he tries to counter and suppress it, his femininity is too firmly a part of his personality for him to overcome it completely. Even though Hamlet seeks to avenge his fathers murder, he is unable to kill Claudius in Act three, scene three. Hamlet decides not to kill Claudius at his attempted prayer, and he thus does not do what he has resolved to do.At this point in the play, the audience sees a fluid character, one who first fashions himself as mad, then earnestly attempts to mold himself like the soldier Fortinbras. However much Hamlet views himself as mutable, he cannot override his passive nature. Hamlet attempts to put on Fortinbrass masculine disposition after killing Polonius and assuring the deaths of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, yet even after returning(a) from his voyage to England, Hamlet is caught in his feminine passivity. Despite hi s earlier resolve that his thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth (4. 4. 69), Hamlet makes no move against Claudius.He walks with Horatio in the graveyard, where he learns of Ophelias death (5. 1. 253), and he attacks Laertes at her gravesite (5. 1. 273), but he still clings to his false antic disposition. Gertrude calls his behavior mere madness and compares Hamlet to a female dove (5. 1. 302, 304). Hamlets shock and grief at learning about Ophelias death could excuse his distraction from attacking Claudius, but Hamlet delays his task too long. By waiting for Laertes dispute instead of choosing his own time to confront Claudius, Hamlet is forced to fight on the treacherous kings terms and dies at the tip of Laertes poisoned sword.Hamlets struggle mirrors the rule of Elizabeth I, who controlled her public image through elaborately constructed personas. Similar to Hamlet, Elizabeth I attempted to disguise or suppress her feminine weakness. She proclaimed that she possessed a mascul ine body politic despite her female body natural. Elizabeth I maintained supremacy throughout her reignno easy task for a woman in the Renaissanceyet her refusal to marry and produce heirs finish the Tudor line of succession.Hamlets plight reflects the anxiety experienced by many English subjects as Elizabeth I grew older with no children to succeed her as Elizabeth I aged, the question of the sovereigns role or representation to provide for the common welfare became increasingly critical. The Queen was still a mere woman, even though she had the heart and stomach of a king (Levin 1). Equally, Hamlet strives to create a public persona that corresponds with the masculine strength of Fortinbras, but he ultimately succumbs to feminine passivity, even though he is a prince. ConclusionHamlet reflects the anxiety of many of Elizabeth Is subjects concerning the strength of their Queen and the succession of the monarchy. With no husband and no heir to the throne, the political security of the country was at stake. Furthermore, many citizens were concerned with Elizabeth Is aging body and her undignified attempts to appear younger. This concern developed in many cases into contempt for Elizabeth Is deceptive manipulations of her image. Hamlet has many feminine characteristics that, especially in the climate of Elizabeth Is decline, make him unsuitable as a ruler or potential king.Although he is not naturally suited to the masculine requirements of kingship, Hamlet strives to overcome his feminine nature in order to doctor the honor and dignity of his family and kingdom. Although he accomplishes this end, his femininity delays him until he is betrayed by Claudius treachery. Hamlet removes Claudius from the throne, but at the court of many lives, and the Danish monarchy passes to a Norwegian ruler. Like Elizabeth I, Hamlet tries to recreate his identity to gain compulsory respect and authority, but ultimately fails to protect his fathers line of succession.In Hamlet, readers can surmise some of the feelings Shakespeare may have experienced in the growing misogyny that permeated the final years of Elizabeth Is reign. Like Hamlet, Elizabeth I was not without flaws, and her subjects came to resent her for these weaknesses, anticipating the advent of a more powerfuland masculinemonarch. As Shakespeare demonstrates with Hamlets poignant death and with Fortinbrass triumph, a stronger, more manful monarch is not necessarily a more admirable or exemplary one.Works Cited Greenblatt, Stephen. Renaissance Self-Fashioning From More to Shakespeare. Chicago U of Chicago P, 1980.Levin, Carole. The Heart and Stomach of a world-beater Elizabeth I and the Politics of Sex and Power. Philadelphia U of Pennsylvania P, 1994. McElroy, Davis D. To Be, or Not to BeIs That the Question? College English 25. 7 (1964) 543-545. Mullaney, Steven. Mourning and Misogyny Hamlet, The Revengers Tragedy, and the Final Progress of Elizabeth I, 1600-1607. Shakespeare Quarterly 4 5. 2 (1994) 139-62. Neely, Carol Thomas. Documents in fury Reading Madness and Gender in Shakespeares Tragedies and Early Modern Culture. Shakespeare Quarterly 42. 3 (1991) 315-38. Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Eds. Barbara A.Mowat and Paul Werstine. saucy York Washington Square P, 1992. Showaiter, Elaine. Representing Ophelia Women, Madness, and the Responsibilities of Feminist Criticism. Hamlet Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from tailfin Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Ed. Susanne L. Wofford. Boston Bedford Books of St. Martins Press, 1994. Tennenhouse, Leonard. Power on Display The Politics of Shakespeares Genres. New York Methuen, 1986. Tilley, M. P, I project Heard of Your Paintings Too. (Hamlet III, i, 148). The Review of English Studies 5. 19 (1929) 312-17

Saturday, April 13, 2019

A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen Essay Example for Free

A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen EssayA Dolls House is the most famous work of Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen. It has been staged throughout the world since way back until now, ane and a half century later. However, a couple of(prenominal) vivifys yield had a similar impact globally on social norms and conditions (UNESCO, 2008). Ibsen introduces a play that is competent in all aspects, much as it is intriguing in his time. It is a play of depth, gravity, and social relevance that it extends its importance and application even in the present rules of order. This play tackles the life of middle class the corking unwashed in Ibsens time and how their lives are heavily affected when they encounter various crises.However, much as it is round families, it high light-headeds the struggles of women and their sacrifices in creating harmony and stability in the home at the expense of their own personal, physical, and emotional well(p)- be. A Dolls House criticises the traditiona l roles of men and women in 19th-century marriage (Shapiro, 99). During this era, this was considered quite scandalous in the European countries because of the great value that they put on marriage. This play was met with a parcel out of criticisms but was eventually accepted as it simulated real-life occurrences that are experienced by a lot of women.The theme dwells highly on the sacrificial role of women in the different classes of society. Since a number of the flakes are women with their own stories to tell, the play was at one point or another considered as a feminist play. The theme was highlighted in the play with the knowledgeableness of these various women and their circumstances. For instance, the nanny in the play had her own share of sacrifice when she has to leave her own syndicate to be a caretaker in the house of Nora and Torvald. This is an act of love by a mother to result better means for her own child.Another character who has impacted the play was Mrs. Lind e who had to confide up Krogstad notwithstanding her love for him. This was sacrificial of her happiness because she opted on marrying a richer man as society may have forced her to do. The most influential character and protagonist in the story is Nora, who in her lifetime, experieneced a lot of hardships and sacrifices in pleasing her husband as well as her father. It was a series of hardships for her because of the fact that society dictated Torvald to be the dominant partner and she has to be a slave to his every whim.She was like a puppet on strings that should never fail to beguile, charm and entertain her husband as well as be like a trophy for him. She even has to be deathly afraid of the calamity that he may know of the loan despite the fact that it was for his sake. To quote Nora, I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald. Thats how Ive survived. You wanted it like that. You and Papa have done me a great wrong. Its because of you Ive made vigor of my life. This i s somehow a summary of how she was made to feel like a childish, innocent woman, when in fact, she is just as intelligent and capable as they thought she was.The moods of the play ranged from light to heavy as different secrets and stories unfold. This moods are highlighted by focusing on different scenes that contribute to the intelligence of the story. For example, the lighter moods such as Torvald calling Nora using affectionate names highlights the theme in a way that it expresses Noras dependence on Torvald as well as her helplessness. Another notable aspect in the stage direction of the play is the use of the scene of the porter in the opening and Noras and Torvalds discussion of money.This overly puts the spotlight on money being one of the forces that creates the conflict in the play. As the scenes progress, some aspects of the play contribute to the progression of the theme like the scene where Nora still practiced her routine despite her nerves on the impending confront ation about the loan. This simply shows how she is experiencing extreme anxiety but still refuses to give in to the fear and prefer to still please her husband. This excessively highlights the title as it is symbolic of the characteristics of dolls.It reiterates the topic that as a doll, Nora should exclusively work on being pleasing to her husband and never get on or improve. Another inclusion, such as Nora eating maccaroons even if Torvald forbids it, is quite satirical but is also symbolic of Noras realization that she should take a stand sometimes. As to symbolism, Ibsen says that life is full of it, and therefore his plays are full of it, though critics insist on discovering all sorts of esoteric meanings in his work of which he is totally innocent (Metheun, 1991. As to symbolisms, the use of the christmas tree in the play is very important as it embodies the character of Nora as a decorative element in the house. It reduces to her being just a plaything for Torvald and no thing more(prenominal). This parallel observation was even highlighted in the second act as the christmas tree was decsribed as being dishevelled which is also the start of Noras questions and self instrospection. Another symbolic part of the play is the use of the revolutionaryfangled Year.Being a festive event, it also is a symbol for newer things and beginnings. For Torvald, it was supposed to be the start of his new post in his job and the end to the loan that Nora is paying. However, the New Year proved to be something more than that. It was a start of conflicts and realizations that the married couple must face as they embark on a challenge on their marriage due to the radical decision that Nora has made. A Doll House is a play that is definitely noteworthy because of its timelessness.The scocial relevance that it carries with it encompasses centuries as they are still obervable today. Society is definitely of aged design and tends to be very critical of women and their ac tuations as well as their rights in the way of life. In the past, this was very much evident in almost a worldwide scale. Today, it is slowly improving as women are now open to doing more things for their self-improvement as the previously did.This play is not only releveant as it showcases the life of women in the 19th century, but it also serves as an inspiration and a scar in the timeline of how women have gone from being dolls in the household to being independent and strong in real life. Works Cited Shapiro, Ann R. The slammed door that still reverberates. in Fisher, Jerilyn Silber, Ellen S. Women in literature reading through the lens of gender. Westport, CT Greenwood. pp. 99101. ISBN9780313313462. Henrik Ibsen A Dolls House. UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. 16 May 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2009.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

How to save the world from pollution Essay Example for Free

How to relieve the world from pollution EssayPART A ( 2 Marks)1. coif badness of peeing.2. Distinguish amid carbonate hardness and noncarbonate hardness. 3. Draw the structure of EDTA. What happens when EDTA is added to hard water?4. sterilize alkalinity.5. Why is water soften before using in boiler?6. What is meant by priming and foaming? How can they be prevented? 7. What is meant by caustic embrittlement? How is it prevented? 8. Indicate the reasons for boiler corrosion.9. What is the region of phosphates in the internal treatment of water? 10. What is calgon conditioning? How is it procedure in water treatment? 11. elevate requisites of potable water.12. Write briefly on disinfection of water by UV treatment.13. Write the principle involved in the desalination of water by reverse osmosis.14. Define the edge break-point chlorination.15. Define desalination.16. What is Sodium zeolite? What is its use?HS1103- engineering chemistry IPART B ( 16 Marks)1. (i) What is the principle of EDTA method? limn the estimation ofHardness of water by EDTA method.(8)(ii) What is the respective(a) methods by which disinfection of municipal water is carried out? exempt. (8)2. (i) Describe briefly the protestent steps in the purification of water for deglutition Purposes. (8)(ii) What is desalination? Name the distinguishable methods of desalination. Explain any one in detail.(8)3. (i) Discuss briefly close to the problems ca apply due to the usage of hard water in boilers.(8)(ii) What be Zeolites? How do they function in removing the hardness? (8) 4. (i) How is internal treatment of boiler water carried out?(8)(ii) Describe the principle and method involved in the determination of different types and amount of alkalinity of water (8)UNIT II SURFACE CHEMISTRYPART A ( 2 Marks)1. How does chemisorption differ from physisorption?2. How will you increase the activity of adsorbent?3. Define adsorption? What is an adsorption isotherm?4. What is Freundli chs adsorption isotherm?5. What are promoters?6. What is catalytic poisoning?7. What is the effect of temperature and pressure on the adsorption of heat content gas on charcoal?8. Define ion-exchange adsorption9. What is langmuir adsorption isotherm? How it is mathematically represented?Kings college of EngineeringHS1103- Engineering chemistry I10. What is the demerit of langmuir adsorption isotherm?PART B ( 16 Marks)1. (i) Distinguish between physiologic adsorption and chemisorption. 6 (ii) follow an expression for Langmuir unimolecular adsorption isotherm. What are its limitations? 102(i) Explain adsorption system (or) contact theory with examples. 6 (ii) Explain the classification functions of ion-exchangers.103 (i) Define the term adsorption and list its application 4 (ii) Explain the role of adsorption in demineralization of water.8 (iii) bemuse any three factors on which adsorption depends 4 4 (i) Derive Freundlichs adsorption isotherm. Give the conditions in which It f ails. 6(ii) Explain the role of adsorption in catalytic reactions 10 5 (i) Discuss the factors which influence adsorption of gas on a solid. 8 (ii) Define adsorption isotherm. Explain the miscellaneous types of adsorption Isotherm. 86 (i) Explain the role of adsorbents in pollution abatement. 12 (ii) Define the terms adsorbent and adsorbable giving suitable examples.4UNIT III ELECTROCHEMISTRYPART A ( 2 Marks)1. What is a stall? suggest its types.2. Define the terms (i) single electrode potential (ii) Electrochemical carrels. 3. Define Helmholtz electrical double layer.4. Write Nernst equation.5. Define a reference electrode. Give one example.6. What is electromotive series? What is its significance?Kings college of EngineeringHS1103- Engineering chemistry I7. What is electrode concentration cell? Give one example.8. Find the potential of the cell in which the following reactions takes vex at 250 C.Zn (s) + Cu2+ (0.02M) Cu(s) + Zn2+ (0.4M)9. What is electro chemical cell?10 . Why can glass electrode not be used for a solution of high alkalinity? 11. What are reversible irreversible cells?12. What are the advantages of conductometric titrations?PART B 16 marks1. (i) Derive Nernst equation. Give its significances. (8)(ii) What are reference electrodes? Describe any two reference electrodes with neat plat and mention their uses.(8)2. (i) Describe a glass electrode. How can it be used for determining the pH Of a solution? (8)(ii) How is Emf of a galvanic cell measured by poggendroffs compensation method? (5)(iii) Consider the cell reaction,Zn(s) +Fe2+ (0.005 M)Zn2+ (0.01 M) + Fe(s)Given that the standard emf of the cell at 298 K is 0.323 V. Construct the cell and Calculate the emf of the cell.(3)3. (i) What are Reference Electrode? Explain the types with neat plots and mention their uses(8)ii) Describe the construction and work of calomel electrode hydrogen electrode (4+4)4. (i) What is the principle underlying conductometric titration? Explain acid-b ase titrations with neat graph.(8)Kings college of EngineeringHS1103- Engineering chemistry I(ii)Describe a quinhydroneelectrode how it can be used for the determination of pH of the solution? (8)5. (i) What is the principle underlying Potentiometric titration? Explain Redox titrations with neat graph.(8)(ii)What is electrochemical series .Give its applications (8) UNIT IV ENERGY SOURCES AND ENERGY STORING DEVICESPART A ( 2 Marks)1. Define nuclear fission.2. What is nuclear chain reaction/3. What is a nuclear reactor?4. Mention any two differences of a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction? 5. What is breeder reactor?6. What is solar cell?7. What are the applications of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell?8. What is wind energy? How is it obtained?9. What is fissile and fertile nucleides?10. What is extremely critical mass and sub critical mass?11. What is nuclear energy?12. What is a bombardment? How does it differ from a cell?13. What are the advantages of alkaline battery over dr y cell? 14. How is NICAD battery constructed?PART B ( 16 Marks)1. (i) What is a nuclear reactor? Describe the components of a light water nuclear power Plant with a suitable blocking diagram. (10)(ii) Explain the mechanism and characteristics of a nuclear fission reaction with suitableExample.(6)Kings college of EngineeringHS1103- Engineering chemistry I2. i)What is reversible battery? Describe the construction and working of lead acid storage battery with reacting occurring during charging and discharging. (8) (ii) How is NICAD battery constructed? Explain with cell reactions. Give its uses. (8) 3 i) Write a brief note on Lithium battery. (8)ii) What are evoke cells? Explain the construction and working of H2-O2 fuel cell.(8) 4. i) Define Photo galvanic cell. Explain its working with diagram. Give its applications. (10)ii) Write note on wind energy. (6)UNIT V ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND CHEMOMETRICSPART A ( 2 Marks)1. State Beer Lamberts law. Give its limitations.2. Name the c omponents of colorimeter.3. What is erupt photometry?4. How are alkali and alkaline primer coat metals detected inflame photometry?Give examples.5. What are the sources of UV light in UV-Visible spectrophotometer? 6. Define the term Bathochromic shift.7. What is finger print region? Mention its important uses.8. Write any two disadvantages of AAS.9. Compare atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame emission spectroscopy 10. How are IR spectral range subdivided?11. What are the limitations of flame photometry?PART B ( 16 Marks)1. (i) Derive Beer-Lamberts law. Give its limitations.(8)(ii)What is Colorimetry? With a block diagram explain how it is used to estimate iron (8)2. (i) Explain briefly the principle and instrumentation of flame photometry. How do you estimate sodium using flame photometry?Kings college of Engineering(8)HS1103- Engineering chemistry I(ii)Explain the various components and working of UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. (8)3. (i)What is IR spectroscopy?. Explain th e various components and working of IR spectrophotometer.ii)(8)With neat energy train diagram explain various transitions involved in UV Spectra. (8)4.(i) Explain how different fundamental modes for different types of compounds Are estimated in IR spectra.(8)(ii) Discuss the principle of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Give the block diagram of AAS.(8)Kings college of Engineering

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Sociological perspective Essay Example for Free

Sociological perspective EssayMarxism, Functionalism and Feminism be sociological theories alongside several(prenominal) others, they are fundamental to the whole discipline of sociology.Functionalism is a structural theory they argue that society is do up of interrelated and interdependent institutions such(prenominal) as education, recreate, religion, law, the family etc. The main function of these institutions is to maintain well-disposed equilibrium.They see society similar to a human body with all the internal parts running(a)(a)(a) together to bring out equilibrium. Functionalists see individual action as the product of social institutions such as the family and education socializing the young into cultural scotch values and norms, this means people believe in a lot the kindred thing and consequently their actions and patterns are predictable. Durkheim believed the very core of society is it values which are passed on and reinforced by family, school religion etc. Individuals behave similarly in the same social context because they have been socialized into the same cultural rules and goals. However Functionalist see institutions such as education and work organizations allocating people to roles in which they would make an effective contribution to the day to day outpouring of society, they believe there is a screen system and people gain their job, money etc through their profess merit. therefore functionalists believe human action is shaped and controlled by social forces such as value consensus and the need to maintain social order, beyond the individuals control , they results on this conformity is social stability and the facts of life of society generation by generation.However it is argued that functionalists over emphasis consensus and order, and play d testify conflict. They tend to localize on functions or benefits of social institutions and consequently neglect the dysfunctions or harm that institutions can cause.Marxism is a macro instruction approach based on a conflict between capital and wage labour. Society splits into an cornerstone (economic base) andsuperstructure (social institutions). Ideology (distorted beliefs) is transmitted through the superstructure to justify inequalities.Marx focused on the inequalities of capitalism. In capitalist society, the bourgeoisie own the means of production (own large amounts of capital and therefore have forefinger), whereas the project sell their labour power for a wage. This is where the conflict rests. The system dictates that the ruling family unit generates more profit (achieved by decreasing wages). Overtime, the descent of conditions, exploitation and lowering of wages results in a situation where the working class become alert of their class position and unite in a state of revolutionary consciousness. Revolution is, therefore, inevitable.Gramsci argues that middle class maintain dominance by using the government to persuade people, and over ly by propagating ideologies ( continuously cater ideas so dey grow strength through things manage media, churches, schools and family in order to win peoples consent. For the middle class to be ideologically plethoric these ideologies need to be tied in to the popular culture of working class.The extent to which such hegemony is achieved varies over time but its unlikely 2 ever be complete. There are twain reasons for dis. firstly middle class are often divided and secondly the proletariat as a dual consciousness. One part which reflects the ideas of the middle class and the other which reflects their everyday experiences. He believes the proletariat to make alliances with other groups for Marxists to win the hearts and minds of subordinate classes by connecting Marxist ideas to popular culture. Hes rose-colored that the struggle for hegemony. People will eventually be persuaded of the need for a revolution.For capital of Kentucky school theirs two main characteristics which d istinguish humans from animals- the ability to transform the environment and the ability to make a intellectual decision about our lives. Capitalists societies dont allow humans to exercise their creativity and reason and thus warrant criticisms 4 being unfair n unreasonable. He agrees with Gramisci that attention needs tobe paid to ideologies which are incorporate people into capitalists system. Two developments are highlighted as crucial here- the growth on instrumental reasons whichs seen as the dominant panache of thinking in a capitalist society and the development of deal culture. Peoples acceptance of instrumental reasons is explained by Frankfurt school in terms of developments of mass culture. It reached the mass of population through mediaThe Frankfurt school comes to a negative conclusion- people are dominated not only at work but also in their leisure. The over riding picture is of society as a mass of isolated individuals who are manipulated by big business. Their seems to be no way out.It has been argued that Marxists put too much emphasis on conflict. Capitalism has improved the standard of living working class. It may be that the working class are aware of inequality and exploitation but they feel that their standard of living compensates for this. So they may therefore actively choose to go to work despite this knowledge. They have also been criticized for economic reductionism i.e. reducing behaviour to class relationships. They may neglect the fact that social behaviour can also be influenced by religious, patriarchal, nationalism and ethnic structures.Interactionalists focus upon the way in which individuals (or social actors as Interactionists like to call them) consciously act rather than simply react to social stimulation. The way in which varied social actors interpret the behaviour of others is significant as a means of understanding the way in which the world is socially constructed. This social construction of the world is foc used upon the meanings people give to behaviour and the way in which they interpret the meaning of behaviour.Mead argued that whilst we are each conscious, thinking, individuals, the way in which we choose to behave is conditioned by the social context of that behaviour. In this, he said that our behaviour as individuals is conditioned by two looks of our self-awareness (that is, the ability to see ourselves as others see us). A) The I aspect which largely consists of spontaneous actions and B) The Me aspect which consists of an awarenessof how other people expect us to behave at any given moment.The I and the Me are parallel parts of what Mead called The Self and it is the ability of human beings to develop a self-concept that makes us several(predicate) to most animals. In animals, for example, the I is dominant (to the approximately total exclusion of the Me in most animals). This means, in effect, that most animal behaviour is instinct-based rather than socially-constructed. In humans, on the other hand, the reverse is true. The Me is dominant to the almost total exclusion of the I. This means, in effect, that most human behaviour is socially-constructed rather than instinct-based.

Monday, April 8, 2019

A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway Essay Example for Free

A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway EssayThe key to a good take hold is a great plot. The plot determines all the events in the story, from the first word, down to the last period. Ernest Hemingway is considered as a giant in the literary world. His book, A Farewell to Arms is a testament to his literary genius. A Farewell to Arms seems at first to be a love story. It is, just most importantly, the fabrication is a story about war, and the tragedy it kneads. In his work, Freylags pyramid of narrative structure is clearly shown. Exposition The novel opens with a description of the place where the main character, Frederic enthalpy or simply called Tenente stayed. He is the vote counter of the story.Hemingway illustrates late summer giving details like falling leaves turning into dust. Troops walk and flashes of fighting in the mountains create an atmosphere of doom to the reader. Hemingway prepares the setting by making a differentiate of peace in nature and the distur bance brought about by the soldiers a smaller picture of the large chaos that nations are facing in war. The characters are also established early in the novel. The narrator is an American volunteer ambulance driver. In the early part of the novel, he is introduced by a fri kibosh to Catherine Barkley, who is the focal point of enthalpys love in the story.Both are the main characters of the story. Others include, Rinaldi, the friend who introduced atomic number 1 and Catherine. A typical Italian male. The priest, Helen Ferguson, and other ambulance drivers also make up the characters that made World warfare I alive for the reader. Rising Action The novel is divided into five books. In the first book, Henry and Catherine are introduced and their relationship begins. The next few books follow the injury of Henry, and his growing relationship with Catherine while convalescing in a hospital in Milan, far from the action.Catherine becomes pregnant and Henry was forced to go back to the front, sledding her. Upon coming back, a crawfish was ordered, were all officers were killed but Henry was able to melt. He was marked as a deserter and having found Catherine, travelled by boat to Switzerland. Here, Henry and Catherine lived a quiet conduct until she goes into labor. All these events, consist of the bulk of the novel. Hemingway had set many problems for Henry and Catherine. He wanted to show that Henry as a hero, was always stoic in adversities.Catherines burden started upon being pregnant but was not too much dwelled upon by Hemingway until the final book of the novel. Several conflicts were shown by Hemingway. The most presumable was Henrys struggle with the tragedies of war. Henrys friend was shot to death by Italians upon retreat the killing spree of officers Henrys life as a deserter the difficult escape to Switzerland by a rowboat . All these were the trials of Henry during the war, and what is ironic is that, he wasnt in peril of the enemy, but of his comrades, of the soldiers that he had been fighting at the same side.These conflicts build up, highlighting the biggest conflict, the Climax. Climax Upon Henry and Catherines successful escape to Switzerland, Catherine goes into labor. The labor is long and painful for Catherine. later a Cesarean operation, the baby is abortive and Catherine haemorrages and dies. The Climax is the culmination of events which create the peak of the conflict. The above-mentioned scene is considered as the climax because, after all the efforts of Henry and Catherine went through to be together, all has been wasted in Catherines death.Falling Action After Catherine died, Henry was left alone with the doctor. He feels helpless and doesnt want any gestures of comfort. The offers of the doctor to bring him to his hotel fell on deaf ears. After the peak of the climax, events that follow constitute the falling action. In his novel, Hemingway skilfully illustrates the unbearable grief and emptiness left up on the passing away of a loved one. The downward mistake of Freylags pyramid accurately shows the feeling of the main character upon losing his love. DenoumentThe conclusion as its name suggests brings an end to the story. In A Farewell to Arms, after Henry went out and left the hospital, he walked back to the hotel in the rain. It is a sad ending that leaves a heavy heart to the reader. The novel is concluded by the hear of Henry walking in rain. Rain usually represents gloom and sadness. In his conclusion, Hemingway shows the main character, the hero, no semipermanent stoic but very much in pain. Works Cited Hemingway, Henry. A Farewell to Arms. New York Charles Scribners Sons, 1957. Print.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Economic progress in Russia in the years 1981-1982 Essay Example for Free

Economic progress in Russia in the stratums 1981-1982 raiseDespite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly un winning in securing sustained frugal progress in the days 1881-1982. Assess the validity of this contestation.Between 1981 and 1982, Russia underwent huge changes, particularly the in economy. Russian history is well kn hold for its frequent changes in policy as the country faced revolutions, changes in regime, changes in leadership and not to mention its involvement in various conflicts. As a result, Russias economic policy was subject to major change apart from three key areas, industry, husbandry and the third sector. These three areas of the economy remained a constant in its invariably changing climate however, many historians soundless argue that Russias economy was winless and poorly managed despite its frequent change in policy. consequently begs the question, To what extent is this true?The tzarist regime, for man y Russians, was a period of economic instability as husbandry was seen as a secondary concern. Growth rate was not structured and egression rate beastly considerably amongst the late 1890s and 1905.1 Meanwhile, other economies expanded leaving Russia struggling to catch up and some historians see agriculture as a reason for Russias economic decline. For model, Carol. S. Leonard argued that Russias caryopsis merchandise per capita GDP was lagged far behind that of America in 1913.2 This argument shows how agriculture in Tsarist Russia wasnt dealt with in effect and as a result, the economy suffered.On the other hand, some historians be in possession of pointed out that agriculture in Russia during the late Tsarist years were not so destructive. One argument maintains that actually, Russias agriculture grew and developed quite substantially pre- revolution. For sample from 1890 to 1913, cereal production per capita increased by 35%3. Although this certify is hard to ignore, it is also difficult to turn a blind eye to the contrasting evidence which suggests that agriculture suffered under the late Tsarist regime and consequently, affected the economy as a whole. For exampleThere was very little investment in agriculture in Imperial Russia and this lead to grim yields and economic volatility when prices rose and felllack of investment in agriculture frequently caused impress prices to repeal which caused famines4Overall, although agriculture grew slightly during the Tsarist regime, ultimately it suffered gravidly as did the Russian mass. Looking at agriculture alone, Russias economy looked bleak however industry had slightly more success during this beat so perhaps the economy was not so bad after all.S J lee puts forward a simple statement The periods of intimately rapid growth were in the reign of Nicholas II (1894-1917) as a result of the economic reforms of Sergei Witte (1892-1903)5. This is easy to see, when one considers that in 1914, Russ ia enkindled 35 million loads of coal, ranking Russia fifth amongst the main producers.6 Building on Lees argument, there seems to be a lot of evidence pointing to Sergei Witte as the main reason for Russias industrial boom. Upon taking office, Witte raised big amounts of capital by securing a loan from France and raising taxes and tariffs and interest rates.7 However, it is the development of Russian rail shipway which Witte is perhaps most remembered for. Under his guidance the railway network grew from rough thirty one thousand km to well-nigh fifty three km worth of track.8With Witte at the helm, Russias industry continued to develop with growth rates comparing well next to those of the United States and Germany. Witte has ofttimes been credited with modernizing Russia to such a great extent that its industrial boom continued long after he left his post as Finance Minister in 1903. For example, in 1913, Russias steel production stood at 4.9 million deliberate tons next to F rances 4.7 million, with coal and iron not far behind.9On the other hand, Wittes industrialization policies were not always so successful. For example, between 1890 and 1899, Russias industrial growth stood at 8.0% whereas between 1900-06, it reduced to 1.4%10. His repoints of modernizing came with a heavy cost and it was consumers who had to pay the price. Taxes were raised but only for the lower classes, because the wealthier classes were spared from taxation although their money was needed for private capital. Tariffs also caused problems as, although they protected Russian industry, they added to the cost of living.11 Whatsmore, although some historians have credited Wittes decision to seek loans from foreign investors, some remain critical. This is because the interest added to the loans had to be pay in a secure medium meaning, in order to pay off their debts, Russia was squeeze to trade grain regularly, including during the famine of 1891.12Overall, although Witte make huge strides in modernizing the Russian economy, he was not entirely faultless. industry picked up, but there were still issues and it was the common man who had to pay. The economy still suffered, although, arguably, not as a great deal as it would have done without Witte. However, the tertiary sector also contributed to the economy.Although some historians critique Russias dependance of Western investors, these ties had corresponding benefits in the shape of trade. 13 Business also boomed within Russia with eight large banks emerge in 1899 which owned more than half the total bank capital. This provided free access for foreign capital, supreme important branches of the Russian economy, including the fuel and metallurgical industries. 14 Moreover, according to Robert Service, domestic industrialists and banks were thriving too.15 This argument can be braveed by the growth in towns and cities between 1897 and 1914. For example the nation in St Petersburg grew from 1ccc thousa nd (1987) to 2100 thousand (1914)16. This shows that the economic growth had a positive impact on society and the country was doing well under the Tsarist regime.However, although to the naked eye Russia seemed to be doing well, their growth wasnt so great. Compared to the other Great powers of the period, Russia was lagging far behind. Between 1894 and 1913, Austria-Hungary had a 79% increase in national income whereas Russia was lagging far behind with only a 50% increase17. This clearly demonstrates that Russias boilers suit topographic point was not so great and actually, Russian people did suffer.When Lenin came to power in 1917, he brought with him a change in regime and economic policy including the introduction of war communism. War communism aimed to interact the economy through state involvement. Rural areas were subjected to grain requisition which was forcibly removed by the military.18 This necessarily was unpopular and caused much suffering and peasants who stored their crops were often wrongfully prosecuted.It was not just agriculture which suffered. Factories were nationalized by November 1920 and were geared towards war production.19 Additionally, private trade was banned and rationing was introduced on consumer goods including food and clothing.War communism was, effectively a self destructive policy. Grain requisitioning meant more than three million people died of starvation by late 1922.20 Moreover, money lost its value and people got by through a system of barter. rising prices shot up and multiplied 1917 costs by four million in 1922. Additionally, in akinity to the growth in city population during the Tsarist regime, people fled the cities. For example in December 1920 the population in Petrograd fell by 57.5%21Lenin k sweet that it was date for a change. War communism caused more harm then good so Lenin came up with an alternative, the New Economic Policy (NEP). Peasants were allowed to sell grain for profit and they paid tax on what they produced rather than giving it up22.Things also changed industrially and in the tertiary sector. Businessmen could own small or medium sized businesses however large firms were still state owned.23 The NEP basically gave the people of Russia freedom and Lenin hoped that it would boost economic growth as well. However, in 1924, Lenin died and Stalin came to power. Stalin also brought new ideas and his own ways of modernizing the economy.In November 1927, Stalin introduced his policies of industrialisation and collectivisation with the aim of modernising the economy. They were supported by a series of five year plans, the first (1928-32) aimed to improve living standards and the second (1933-37) and third (1938-41) aimed to highlight and thus, amend, Russias weaknesses24.Industrialisation was relatively successful as by the late 1930s many workers conditions had improved and they had acquired better paid jobs and unemployment was almost non-existent. Accounts from the ti me support this viewGood progress was made4500 new factories, plants, mines and power post were commissioned, three times as many as the first Five-Year period25.On the other hand, industrialisation was harsh and lateness for work often led to employees getting the sack. Many prisoners also paid the price by working on the grand engineering projects and working in appalling and dangerous conditions. For example close to 100000 workers died building the Belmor Canal26.Collectivisation was ultimately unsuccessful and peasants were in a worse position than ever before. The concept of sharing farms and thus, sharing salary meant there wasnt enough money to go around and crop production fell too. For example Grain shortages, combined with continued forced procurements, led to campestral famine27 However, some people benefitted from collectivisation such as Bertha Malnick We have more than 600 hectaresour farmers have reinforced 70 new houses for themselves during the last few years28. However, it is reasonable to conclude overall that collectivisation was unsuccessful given the various sources which provide figures of those who died or badly suffered during Stalins reign. Stalin died in 1953 and Khrushchev took over. Khrushchev focused on DeStalinisation, distancing the USSR as far away from Stalin as possible.Khrushchev was keen to adopt a different economic policy with the aim of building on the countrys previous economic growth and amending its weaknesses and one way he did this was by abandoning the five year plans and starting a new, seven year plan (1959-65) which aimed to take avail of newly discovered mineral resources and fit in with industry29. Khrushchev pumped a lot of money into agriculture and overall 40% of investment was put into the neglected eastern regions of the USSR30.However, the seven year plan had similar flaws to the previous five year plans such as mistakes in resource distribution. Living standards got worse, the opposite to what Khru shchev had hoped to achieve. For example only five in one thousand citizens owned a car and in 1963, the USSR was forced to import grain from the capitalist west to compensate shortages.31There were successes during this time such as the rise in foreign trade however this cant compensate for the huge failures experienced during this time. Khrushchev made an honest attempt to improve the economy however his plans backfired and once again the country was left to light-headed up an economic mess. Eventually, Khrushchev was removed from power and in his place came Brezhnev who did little to change the economy.The era of Brezhnev has often been described as a period of economic stagnation but some historians believe that this is not fair. Like Khrushchev, Brezhnev wanted to focus on improving agriculture and living standards in Russia. Historians Gwyneth Hughes and Simon Welfare support this view saying by and by the terror of Stalins reign and the chaos of Khrushchevs, the Soviet Union was in for a period of stability, and that meant everyone kept their job and their perks for life.32 Brezhnev allowed farmers to work on state own plots which motivated them to produce as much as possible in order to sell the surplus33. This, in theory, should have been serious and shows that Brezhnev was trying to improve the economy through new methods however, he was not so lucky.In 1975, the USSR suffered some other poor harvest meaning Brezhnev had to increase foreign exports to keep everyone fed. This was just another disaster in Russia but Brezhnev did little to help. His aim to improve agriculture and living standards meant he neglected industry and production rates continued to rapidly fall34. However, arguably his biggest flaw was his inability to change the already ridged economy. Brezhnev had new ideas but couldnt fight the system and by the end of his reign, Russia had made little improvement. Historian Dmitri Volkognov outdo sums up the Brezhnev period sayingIf Len in and Stalin, and to some extent even Khrushchev, were able to enliven the moribund political orientation of Communism, it was quite beyond Brezhnev35.In conclusion, between 1881 and 1982, Russia experienced much hardship especially surrounding the economy. After analyzing this one hundred year period it is hard to deny that the statement Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing sustained economic progress in the years 1881-1992. The economy under the Tsarist regime had its faults and during and after the 1917 revolution, it was widely believed that the countrys economic situation would improve. However, from Lenin to Stalin and Khrushchev to Brezhnev, it seemed that no leader was able to sustain a long-lasting and successful economic policy. The economy grew as quickly as it declined and it has taken many years to make any significant progress since. Therefore, this statement is valid.________________1 Heineman n Advanced recital The Modernisation of Russia 1856-19852 Agricultural Productivity Growth in Russia 1861-1913. From Inertia to Ferment by Carol. S. Leonard3 The Penguin History of Modern Russia by Robert Service4 www.historymadefun.co.uk/Tsarism5 Overview from Russia and the USSR Autocracy and Dictatorship (questions and answers in History) by Stephen. J. Lee6 Stephen J Lee7 http//www.slideshare.net/russeltarr/tsar-nicholas-ii-and-industry8 The Industrialisation of Russia by M. Falkus9 http//www.portalus.ru/modules/english_russia10 M. Falkus11 A2 History OCR A Russia and its Rulers 1855-196412 A2 History OCR13 S. J Lee14 A History of the USSR15 Penguin History of Modern Russia16 M. Falkus17 The Making of the Revolution, 1881-190518 From Years of Russia and the USSR, 1851-1991 by Evans and Jenkins19 Evans and Jenkins20 The Russian Revolutions 1914-192421 Evans and Jenkins22 The USSR, Germany and the USA between the wars23 Russia and the USSR 1905-194124 The USSR, Germany and Russia between the wars25 A Soviet view of the second five year plan from History of the USSR by Y. Kukushkin26 Stalin and the Soviet parsimony27 European History 1848-1945 by T.A Morris28 Everyday Life in Russia by Bertha Malnick29 AQA A2 History Triumph and collapse Russia and the USSR 1941-1991 by John Laver Sally Waller30 Russia 1855- 1964 Flagship History by D. Murray and T. Morris31 The Soviet Economy 1917-80 by S J Lee32 Red Empire. The Forbidden History of the USSR by G. Hughes and S. Welfare33 www.ibguides.com/history/notes.ccom34 Years of Russia and the USSR, 1851-199135 The wage increase and Fall of the Soviet Empire by D.Volkognov