Saturday, August 31, 2019

Lack Of Standards For Ehr Health And Social Care Essay

In 21st century Information Technology played an sole function in upper limit of the Fieldss ; nevertheless, health care is one noticeable exclusion. Harmonizing to surveies, U.S. infirmaries and multiple-facility wellness systems are â€Å" merely get downing to round out their clinical webs, but are much farther along than physician patterns. † ( David B. Meinert ) While many inmate or infirmary installations migrating from paper charts to electronic records, but a small advancement has been made in the ambulatory or outpatient scene. Vast bulk medical professionals including doctors have been loath to utilize electronic medical records and go on to trust on paper records. Paper medical records are informations rich by nature, but information is hapless as doctors and other wellness attention suppliers have limited clip to delve through volumes of paper to recover information, use it in decision-making and/or portion it with patients. EMR/EHR systems hold enormous promise fo r non merely bettering the measure and quality of clinical informations that can be recorded, but more significantly the ability to entree wellness attention informations to better quality of attention. This survey will seek to see the perceptual experience of medical professionals towards Electronic medical record. Study has been done as a comparative survey among two different types of scenes that is hospital which are utilizing EMR ( paperless infirmaries that is category A ) and infirmaries which are holding their ain information system where the paper-based medical records are scanned and used ( Category B infirmaries ) . Electronic Medical Record ( EMR ) Harmonizing to the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society ( HIMSS ) , an EMR is a constituent of an electronic wellness record which is owned by the health care supplier. ( Dr. Chris Hobson ) This engineering, when to the full developed, meets provider demands for real-time informations entree and rating in medical attention. EMR besides provides the mechanism for longitudinal informations storage and entree. The content of an EMR is correspondent to the paper record, but the electronic format creates useable informations in medical result surveies, improves the efficiency of attention, and makes for more efficient communicating among suppliers and easier direction of wellness programs. ( Electronic Medical Record: The Link to a Better Future, Texas Medical Association ) Electronic Health Record ( EHR ) is an electronic version of a patient ‘s medical history, that is maintained by the supplier over clip, These have been used extensively by general practicians in many developed states and include patient designation inside informations, medicines and prescription coevals, laboratory consequences and in some instances all healthcare information recorded by the physician during each visit by the patient. ( Electronic wellness records: manual for developing states. WHO ) EHRs are the following measure in the continued advancement of health care that can beef up the relationship between patients and clinicians.A The informations, seasonableness and handiness of it, will enable suppliers to take better determinations and provide quality attention. For illustration, the EHR can better patient attention by: Reducing the incidence of medical mistake by bettering the truth and lucidity of medical records. Making the wellness information available, cut downing duplicate of trials, cut downing holds in intervention, and patients good informed to take better determinations. Reducing medical mistake by bettering the truth and lucidity of medical records.Background:Hospital information systems ( HIS ) and Electronic Medical Records ( EMRs ) are considered requirements for the efficient bringing of high quality wellness attention in infirmaries. However, a big figure of legal and practical restraints influence on the design and debut of such systems ( Dick RS, Steen EB ) Hence, many EMR execution undertakings do non take at presenting the EMR and extinguishing the paper-based opposite number in one measure ( Laerum H ) . As a start, the EMR is introduced along with its paper-based opposite number, and both are kept updated. In such environments, wellness attention workers have to cover with a intercrossed electronic and paper-based solution. This likely limits the usage of EMR ( Laerum H ) . Furthermore, mistakes are prone to develop due to cumbersome care of the medical record information in double storage media. In many states, most hospital EMR undertakings have non passed beyond this stage ( Dick RS, Steen EB )Electronic Medical Records- the altering tendency:aˆ? Paper based records are being bit by bit replaced by computing machine based records ( which is in being in the West since 2 decennaries ) aˆ? It has non achieved the same incursion in health care as in finance or other industry. Deployment varies in statesAims:To reexamine already bing information system of both class of infirmaries To happen out existent versus perceptual troubles while utilizing EMR both classs infirmaries To analyze the overall perceptual experience of infirmaries about EMR To mensurate satisfaction from EMR in class A infirmary To bring forth a checklist for bettermentMethodology:Overview: Assorted surveies which has been done globally has been surveies to happen out statement of job, since no such survey has been found in Indian context, so all premises from other states has been considered as relevant. Sing the less version of EMR usage, this survey tries to happen out existent versus perceptual advantages, disadvantages and functionality etc to acquire the clear image. Sample: entire four infirmaries have been selected under two different scenes for comparing. Each scene has two infirmaries of same sort. For easiness both scenes have been given name class A and class B. Class A infirmary are EMR user infirmary while class B infirmary are holding their ain infirmary information system in topographic point along with the paper record. For easiness footings category A and B in whole papers alternatively of EMR user and EMR nonuser infirmaries Sample size: Excluding 4 IT caputs, entire 120 responses has been collected form clinical staffs, which includes physicians, occupants, caputs of sections and nurses etc. Thirty responses from each infirmary have been collected. Questionnaire: questionnaires had been used for roll uping informations from both category infirmaries. Questions are of near ended, rated on the footing of likert graduated table from 1-5. Response recording has besides been done for happening out the jobs, so that better suggestions can be made. Interviewing: in deepness interviews has been taken by IT caputs of all the four infirmaries to understand all the factors from their point of position, and to understand their return on different jobs addressed by their clinical staff. Since none of the infirmary is utilizing EHR, so complete survey had been done about EMR merely. Data aggregation had been done as follows- Questionnaires have been used for roll uping informations from medical staff. In depth interview with IT caputs of all the four sections Reappraisal of literature related to EMR Reappraisal of the literature to understand perceptual experience of medical professionals sing EMR usage. Inclusion standards: to guarantee cogency of sample, two inquiries were set in questionnaire. Harmonizing to that who were working in infirmary for more than three months ; were eligible. Another inclusion standard was straight related to patient attention. Those who were utilizing computing machine for come ining patient information/ recovering patient information/ trial consequence retrieval etc ; were eligible.Literature reappraisalThere are many maps associated with patient wellness records. This record is non merely used to document patient attention, but it besides used for entering fiscal and legal information and research and quality betterment intents. ( Young, Kathleen M. ) The conventional paper-based medical record has several restrictions. Though this traditional method is utile for entering patient ‘s inside informations for work outing medical issues, tracking down patients and for organizing in health care procedure, but it has so many disadvantages. These types of records are frequently ailing indexed and sometimes illegible, fragmented, because these records are manus written. The most disadvantageous factor of utilizing this method is that the medical record would be accessible to merely one individual at a clip. These medical records can non be made available to everyone at the same clip. Last but non least there is the job of storage of paper record, most of the times these are non stored decently, which in bend cause failure in retrieval of information, whenever required. Medical record is systematic certification of a individual patient ‘s medical history and attention across clip within one peculiar wellness attention supplier. The medical record includes a assortment of types of â€Å" notes † entered over clip by wellness attention professionals, entering observations and disposal of drugs and therapies, orders for the disposal of drugs and therapies, trial consequences, x-rays, studies, etc. The electronic wellness record ( EHR ) provides the chance for healthcare organisations to better quality of attention and patient safety. â€Å" The greatest challenge in the new universe of incorporate health care bringing is to supply comprehensive, dependable, relevant, accessible, and seasonably patient information to each member of the health care squad, whether in primary or secondary attention and whether a physician, nurse, allied wellness professional, or patient/consumer † ( Schloeffel ) An electronic medical record ( EMR ) is a computerized medical created in an organisation that delivers care, such as a infirmary or doctor ‘s office. Electronic medical records tend to be a portion of a local stand-alone wellness information system that allows storage, retrieval and alteration of records. Some definitions: Harmonizing to National Alliance for Health Information Technology ( NAHIT ) EMR: The electronic record of health-related information on an person that is created, gathered, managed, and consulted by accredited clinicians and staff from a individual organisation who are involved in the person ‘s wellness and attention. EHR: The aggregative electronic record of health-related information on an person that is created and gathered cumulatively across more than one wellness attention organisation and is managed and consulted by accredited clinicians and staff involved in the person ‘s wellness and attention.Purpose of medical record:The chief intent of medical records and medical notes is to record and pass on information about patients and their attention. If notes are non organised and completed decently, it can take to defeat, argument, clinical mishap and judicial proceeding. medical records are now used non merely as a comprehensive record of attention but besides as a beginning of informations for hospital service activity coverage, supervising the public presentation of infirmaries and for audit and research. Many of the causes of inaccurate clinical cryptography of this secondary informations are rooted in the quality of medical notes History of Electronic Medical Records: Doctors are expected to document brushs they have with patients to guarantee important information for decision-making is recorded and actions taken are besides recorded. Documentation is besides required as an archival record of what happened in instances of difference. To a great extent, physicians resent the undertaking of certification, as it detracts from their primary undertaking: taking attention of patients. Doctors besides resent the duplicate of attempt required with certification, as every medicine that is written on a prescription tablet, every lab trial ordered, every X ray ordered has to be re-written in the chart to keep a good record. Communication between practicians is hard as in many instances the information collected is fragmented, often excess and voluminous. Finally, doctors are invariably inundated with new information and have no tools to assist them integrate new techniques and interventions into their daily activities, other than utilizing their memories or holding to tote around big text editions. The thought of entering patient information electronically alternatively of on paper -the Electronic Medical Record ( EMR ) -has been around since the late 1960 ‘s, when Larry Weed introduced the construct of the Problem Oriented Medical Record into medical pattern. Until so, physician ‘s normally recorded merely their diagnosings and the intervention they provided. Weed ‘s invention was to bring forth a record that would let a 3rd party to independently verify the diagnosing. In 1972, the Regenstreif Institute developed the first medical records system. Although the construct was widely hailed as a major progress in medical pattern, doctors did non flock to the engineering. In 1991, the Institute of Medicine, a extremely respected think armored combat vehicle in the US recommended that by the twelvemonth 2000, every doctor should be utilizing computing machines in their pattern to better patient attention and made policy recommendations on how to accomplish that end. Advantages OF THE EHR: advantages of EHR can be divided as following-1 ) Clinical resultsa ) Quality of attention: Improving quality of attention is one of the chief focal points of many EHR surveies. Quality of attention has been defined as â€Å" making the right thing at the right clip in the right manner to the right individual and holding the best possible consequences † , in short â€Å" a procedure for doing strategic picks in wellness systems † .A Quality of attention includes six dimensions, effectivity, efficiency, patient safety, handiness or seasonableness, just entree, and patient-centeredness or acceptableness, but most EHR research has focused on the first three. Last three constituents needed more research in their corresponding Fieldss. Erstwhile patients may non adhere to outdo pattern guidelines ; even the suppliers have best purpose. This sort of state of affairs can originate due to assorted factors like- Clinicians are non cognizant with the guidelines. Clinicians may non recognize that a peculiar guideline applies to a given patient. Lack of clip during the patient visit. EHR systems proved rather effectual in managing such sort of issues and improved attachment rates. For illustration, research workers found that computerized physician reminders increased the usage of grippe and pneumococcal inoculations from practically 0 % to 35 % and 50 % , severally, for hospitalized patients ( exter PR, Perkins S, Overhage JM, et al. ) . Similarity other surveies with computerized reminders on inoculation rates, shows important better attachment to immunisation guidelines. Lower berths the hazard of disease eruptions in communities: There are many other researches have conducted that focused on other preventative services and studied consequence of EHRs on different results to better attention efficaciously. Willson et Al found in his survey on hospitalized patients that after implementing computerized reminders targeted to hospital nurses, there is 5 % decrease in the development of force per unit area ulcer after 6 months. It proves a important association between computerized reminders and hazard of disease. Effective wellness attention bringing: Research workers have besides found that there is a profound relation between EHRs and efficiency in wellness attention bringing. Here efficiency refers to the turning away of blowing resources, including supplies, medical equipment, money, thoughts, and energy. One such signifier of waste involves excess diagnostic testing. Performing excess trials is dearly-won and may take to more false-positive consequences, which will so take to even more costs. Tierney et Al found a 14.3 % lessening in the figure of diagnostic trials ordered per visit and a 12.9 % lessening in diagnostic trial costs per visit when utilizing an EHR with CDS and CPOE constituents. Other, unrelated surveies found an 18 % lessening in trials ordered for medical visits in the exigency section, a 27 % lessening in excess research lab trials of antiepileptic medicine degrees in hospitalized patients, and a 24 % decrease in excess research lab trials in a infirmary. Reduced medicine mistakes: A well-known survey group found in their survey that merely presenting CPOE system reduced serious medicine mistake by 55 % in the infirmary scene. Whereas subsequently in followup survey the same group expert found that, these medicine mistakes can be reduced every bit much as 86 % by adding CDS system together with CPOE system. A similar, more recent survey in the outpatient puting found that cybernation resulted in an mistake rate decrease from 18.2 % to 8.2 % . ( Devine EB, Hansen RN, Wilson-Norton JL, et al. ) . On the other manus many other surveies have concluded that by presenting computerised system, the figure of appropriate medicine orders affecting dosing degrees or dosing frequence can be increased. Better clinical result: Many of the surveies besides focused on clinical results. Randomized test research design used for carry oning these surveies in a clinical scene. An extra organic structure of literature has examined, observationally, comparing of public presentation in between infirmaries that implemented EHRs and other computerized capablenesss with its opposite numbers that have non. For illustration, Menachemi et Al found that Florida infirmaries with greater investings in EHR engineerings had more desirable rates on a assortment of normally used quality indexs. Patient Safety: The challenge of reading handwritten notes, orders, and prescriptions has been eliminated with the EHR. Patients ‘ chart information is clear and legible. Reports and letters to other specializers and patients are comprehensive, professional, and easy to make. Chart information is ever accessible and found in the same topographic point. Paper charts, on the other manus, can go littered with a batch of necessary but misplaced information.2 ) Organisational results:Surveies analyzing organisational results have focused on EHR usage in both the inmate and outpatient scenes. Such results have often included increased gross, averted costs, and other benefits that are less touchable, such as improved legal and regulative conformity, improved ability to carry on research, and increased job/career satisfaction among doctors. Increased gross comes from multiple beginnings, including improved charge capture/decrease in charge mistakes, improved hard currency flow, and enh anced gross. Several writers have asserted that EHRs aid suppliers in accurately capturing patient charges in a timely mode ( Schmitt KF, Wofford DA ) Electronically available patient information generated so many efficiencies, which straight help in debaring cost. Some of these efficiency includes increased use of trials, reduced staff needed for patient direction, decreased written text costs, reduced costs associating to supplies needed to keep paper files, and the costs associating to chart pulls. EHRs besides cut down the redundant usage of trial or the demand to get off difficult transcripts of trial study to all suppliers that save money and clip of organisation. ( Chen P, Tanasijevic MJ, Schoenenberger RA, et Al ) . Surveies have besides shown that holding an EHR can cut down written text costs through electronically available structured certification processs instead than a paper file. ( Agrawal A. ) In add-on, research workers in Massachusetts have found that doctors utilizing an EHR had fewer paid malpractice claims. They found a doctor without EHR have much higher ( 10.6 % ) history of paid malpractice claims compared to those doctors with EHRs ( 6.1 % ) . This decrease is potentially the consequence of better communicating among health professionals, increased discernability and completeness of patient records, and increased attachment to clinical guidelines.3 ) Social results:Another less touchable benefit associated with EHRs is an improved ability to carry on research. As patient informations stored electronically that makes handiness of informations much easier which leads excessively many quantitative analyses to place evidence-based best patterns more easy ( A Aspden P.A ) . Furthermore, public wellness and other interdisciplinary research workers are actively utilizing electronic clinical informations that are existent informations aggregated across populations to brin g forth good research determination, which is good to society. Till today handiness of clinical informations is much limited but as suppliers will get down utilizing EHRs, this dataset will besides get down turning. Subsequently by uniting this clinical information with more informations from other beginnings like nonprescription medicine purchases and school absenteeism rates, our researches and public wellness organisation can break supervise disease eruptions and better surveillance of possible biological menaces ( Kukafka R, Ancker JS, Chan C, et Al ) . Research workers have besides found an association between EHR usage and physician satisfaction with their current pattern, A together with their calling satisfaction.A Harmonizing to many surveies, physician satisfaction should be a precedence in wellness attention organisations, because it is associated with better quality of attention, better prescribing behaviors, and increased keeping in medical patterns, peculiarly those in underserved countries. ( A Elder KT, Wiltshire JC, Rooks RN, et al.A ) Chaudhry et al noted that a big proportion of the surveies that found benefits from EHR were conducted in a selected figure of academic medical Centres in infirmary scene. Due to this ground many research workers are besides seting a inquiry about the generalisation of identified benefits of EHR in existent universe where they may neither hold similar fiscal and human resources nor a decades-long committedness to wellness information engineering. More research on the varying types and grades of benefits associated with EHR is warranted, particularly in community scenes such as physician patterns and non-academic infirmary scenes.Barriers TO THE EHRAlthough Electronic Health Records ( EHRs ) bring enormous benefits to patient attention and to the health-care supplier, usage of the ambulatory EHR alternatively of the paper chart did non become widespread among the independent doctors during the 1990s. Even though the motive of improved patient attention and handiness of medical informa tions was present, health-care suppliers were hesitating to get down utilizing this medical tool. Specii hundred grounds have been hypothesized for the deficiency of EHR execution, and they are outlined below.A Lack of Standards for EHR SystemsThe content within the systems did non hold uniformity for compatibility or interoperability. Assorted plans offered different characteristics and the exchange of informations was non possible. Besides, criterions for the security of confidential information through encoding or informations unity had non been set. The quality of EHR plans and computing machine webs was non sufficiently dependable to forestall downtime, therefore ensuing at times in the deficiency of entree to patient information or medical information. Data for clinical protocols, direction of patient attention, and determination support through algorithms were non yet standard for EHRs.Unknown Cost and Return on InvestmentHealth-care suppliers found it hard to accurately ciph er costs and Return on Investment ( ROI ) with the usage of an EHR. The full cost of an EHR includes the package purchase monetary value, extra computing machine hardware, execution including the preparation of staff, customization of the system, ongoing proficient support, system care, and future plan ascents. Measuring ROI includes intangible, unmeasurable, and nonfinancial information, such as improved patient attention, patient safety, and more efficient procedures. Measurable ROI includes addition in income from more accurate cryptography, greater clip efficiency as a consequence of rapid chart certification, expanded patient burden because of this efficiency, and decreased office supply costs such as paper, charts, and printing supplies. It was hard to accurately cipher costs and ROI with the usage of an EHR.Difficult to OperateDoctors perceived that it took more clip for informations entry than handwriting. A physician order signifier may hold been simpler to handwrite than t o treat through a computing machine system. Learning where the information should be entered or accessed was complicated and computing machines were non ever accessible at the point of attention. System warnings and medical qui vives incorporating critical information had non been developed. The long-run benefit were hard for some health care suppliers to value over the sensed troubles of operationSignificant Changes in Clinic ProceduresAlthough an EHR can be customized for specific medical patterns, there is ever some procedure alteration required by the supplier and medical staff. An EHR may convey a more stiff construction for come ining information than tossing through a paper chart. Adapting to new criterions of operation for come ining and turn uping information can be hard ab initio. Some EHRs have specifications or specific modus operandis for practising medical specialty that the supplier may non accommodate to easy. The health-care supplier may non be able to turn to and a nalyse jobs in the same ways that may hold been done in the yesteryear, even though the information in an EHR is more thorough and immediately available. New tools for improved patient attention require retraining, new procedures, and alterations in the medical pattern civilization.Lack of Trust and SafetyA concern for the security of the medical record stored electronically alternatively of on paper is common. Health-care suppliers may be concerned that the electronic medical record could be altered without their consent or cognition. Suppliers must hold the confidence that the medical records are safely stored for future handiness. Power outages, computing machine â€Å" clangs, † viruses, concerns about equal backup, and so on are issues suppliers must get the better of to be confident in utilizing an EHR.Use of EHR plans, peculiarly in the small- to moderate-sized patterns, is spread outing quickly. About 78 per centum of doctors in private pattern are within this market group of eight or fewer physicians. With the explosive growing of EHR execution in this section of the medical community, a great demand has been generated for both clerical and clinical support staffs that have professional preparation and exposure to the EHR. Concerns about the passage from traditional paper charts to EHRs are now being overcome. Many of the concerns expressed about EHRs have been addressed more to the full in recent old ages. Although the motives vary from a pattern desiring to merely â€Å" go paperless † to another pattern desiring to better patient attention, medical clinics are rapidly acknowledging the unbelievable tool the EHR is conveying to the medical pattern.Disadvantages of EMROn the reverse of advantages some writers have identified several possible disadvantage of utilizing EHRs. These include fiscal issues, alterations in work flow, impermanent loss of productiveness associated with EHR acceptance, privateness and security concerns, and sever al unintended effects. Significant cost: A major ground for deterrence for following and implementing EHR is its cost. It includes loss of gross associated with impermanent loss of productiveness, declines in gross, acceptance and execution costs and on-going care costs. Here EHR acceptance and execution costs includes buying and installation hardware and package, change overing paper charts to electronic 1s, and preparation of end-users. Different surveies documented this cost in both inmate and outpatient scenes. Like a survey conducted in 2002 at a 280-bed ague attention infirmary, the projected entire cost for a 7-year-long EHR installing undertaking was about US $ 19 million. In the outpatient scene, early research workers estimated an mean initial cost of US $ 50,000-US $ 70,000 per doctor for a three-physician office. However, as EHR engineerings have become more platitude over the past decennary, the initial cost of systems has come down dramatically ( Schmitt KF ) , ( Agrawal A ) Care cost besides can be cumbersome as hardware needs to replace clip to clip and package demands to upgrade on regular footing. In add-on, suppliers must hold ongoing preparation and support for the end-users of an EHR. Harmonizing to one survey conducted on 14 solo or small-group primary attention patterns, estimated on-going EHR care costs averaged US $ 8412 per FTE supplier per twelvemonth. Out of entire cost around 91 % of this was related to hardware replacing, seller package care and support fees, and payments for information systems staff or external contractors ( Fleming NS, Culler SD, McCorkle R, et Al ) Break of work-flows for medical staff and suppliers: Another major disadvantage of implementing EHRs is break of everyday work-flow for medical-staff or supplier, which consequences to loss of impermanent productiveness. This break may be because of preparation of end-users which potentially leads to loss in gross. One survey that involved several internal medical specialty clinics estimated, a productiveness loss of 20 % in the first month, 10 % in the 2nd month, and 5 % in the 3rd month before productiveness return to its original degrees as in get downing ( Wang SJ, Middleton B, Prosser LA, et al. ) Research workers besides have estimated that EHR end-users spent around 134.2 hours on execution activities that includes acquiring and larning a new system. These hours spent on nonclinical duties had an estimated cost of US $ 10,325 per doctor ( Fleming NS, Culler SD, McCorkle R, et al. ) Hazard of patient privateness misdemeanors: Another possible drawback of EHRs is the hazard of patient privateness misdemeanors, which is an increasing concern for patients due to the increasing sum of wellness information exchanged electronically between suppliers. To face such sort of state of affairss, policymakers have taken steps to guarantee safety and privateness of patient informations. For illustration, recent statute law has imposed ordinances specifically associating to the electronic exchange of wellness information that strengthen bing Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act privateness and security policies. Although few electronic informations are 100 % secure, the strict demands set Forth by the new statute law make it much more hard for electronic informations to be accessed unsuitably. ( Zurita L, Nohr C. Patient sentiment: EHR appraisal from the users perspective. ( Stud Health Technol Inform. ) Not merely acts do interchanging electronic wellness informations secure but besides many infirmaries and doctors are implementing rigorous regulations like no tolerance punishments for employees who entree files unsuitably. For illustration, a infirmary in Arizona terminated several employees after they unsuitably accessed the records of victims who were hospitalized after the January 2011 hiting affecting a US Congresswoman. ( Innes S. ) Although privateness will probably go on to be a concern for patients, many stairss are being taken by policymakers and single organisations to guarantee that EHRs comply with the rigorous Torahs and ordinances intended to guarantee the privateness of clinical information.Decrease face-to-face clip with patients, depersonalize brushsEHRs may do several unintended effects, such as increased medical mistakes, negative emotions, alterations in power construction, and overdependence on engineering. ( Campbell EM, Sittig DF, Ash JS, et al. ) Research workers have found an association between increased medical mistakes and CPOE due to faulty system or untrained end-user. Additionally, end-users of an EHR may see strong emotional responses as they struggle to accommodate to new engineering and breaks in their work flow. Changes in the power construction of an organisation may besides happen due to the execution of an EHR which makes it rather more machine-controlled. For illustration, a doc tor may lose his or her liberty in doing patient determinations because an EHR blocks the ordination of certain trials or medicines. Overdependence on engineering may besides go an issue for suppliers as they become more reliant upon itInvention credence:The beginnings of attitude and behaviour day of the month back to every bit early as 1862, when psychologists began developing theories demoing how attitude wedged behaviour. Those surveies by societal psychologists continued and in 1925, many new theories emerged proposing that â€Å" attitudes could explicate human actions † ( Ajzen & A ; Fishbein, 1980, p. 13 ) Several theoretical accounts have been developed and utilized to analyse the credence of engineering. Some of the of import theoretical accounts are as follows-Theory of Reasoned Action ( TRA )Harmonizing to this theoretical account, a individual ‘s behaviour is determined by his/her behavioural purposes ( BI ) to execute that behaviour. That BI is itself determined by both a individual ‘s attitude toward the behaviour and subjective norm refering the behaviour.Theory of Planned Behavior ( TPB )The theory of planned behaviour was proposed by Icek Ajzen in 1985 through his article â€Å" From purposes to actions: A theory of planned behaviour. † The theory was developed from the theory of sound action, which was proposed by Martin Fishbein together with Icek Ajzen in 1975. Harmonizing to the theory of sound action, if people evaluate the suggested behaviour as positive ( attitude ) , and if they think their important others want them to execute the behaviour ( subje ctive norm ) , this consequences in a higher purpose ( motive ) and they are more likely to make so.Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM )Based on the theory of sound Action, Davis ( 1986 ) developed the Technology Acceptance Model which deals more specifically with the anticipation of the acceptableness of an information system. This theoretical account suggests that the acceptableness of an information system is determined by two chief factors: perceived usefulness and sensed easiness of usage. Perceived utility is defined as being the grade to which a individual believes that the usage of a system will better his public presentation. Perceived easiness of usage refers to the grade to which a individual believes that the usage of a system will be effortless Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) The UTAUT purposes to explicate user purposes to utilize an information system and subsequent use behaviour. The theory holds that four key concepts ( public presentation anticipation, attempt anticipation, societal influence, and easing conditions ) are direct determiners of usage purpose and behavior. Gender, age, experience, and voluntariness of usage are posited to intercede the impact of the four key concepts on usage purpose and behaviour.Factors Affecting EMR AcceptanceAcceptance is defined as the willingness within a user group to use information engineering to the undertakings it is designed to back up ( Dillon & A ; Morris, 1996 ) . Many research workers have stressed the importance of credence survey. For illustration, Kirk ( 2003 ) urged pressing actions on supplying legal and societal model for credence andintroduction of EMR. Likewise, Gefen ( 2003 ) , Zdon ( 1998 ) , Anderson ( 1997 ) , Moore ( 1996 ) , Baroudi ( 1986 ) , Bardram ( 1997 ) , Bowers ( 1995 ) , Graham ( 1996 ) , and Hubona ( 1996 ) , all discussed similar issue. Furthermore, past experiences show that the attempt to present EMR will ensue in failure and unforeseen effects if their proficient facets are over emphatic and their societal and organisational factors such as the user credence and the diffusion of information system are overlooked ( Gefen, 2003, Anderson, 1999, Moore, 1996 ) . Kirk ( 2003 ) has noted that presently there is no societal model for EMR credence. The closest model theoretical account, which measures perceived usefulness and sensed easiness of usage, that can be adopted is the Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM ) proposed by Davis ( 1989 ) . Tsiknakis ( 2002 ) , Einarson ( 1993 ) , and Neilder ( 1997 ) added that hapless presentation of patient ‘s informations can take to ill informed clinical professionals, medicine mistakes, inappropriate repeat of probe, unneeded referrals, and waste of clinical clip and other resources. Indeed, hapless presentation of patient ‘s information is an interface issue, which warrants more investigation.In obtaining the user credence of wellness attention, peculiarly its system interface, Rosenbaum ( 1998 ) proposed six successful techniques: Involving the user community in needs analysis and demands definition. Designating members of the user community who are involved in the system design as don ( people who receive first preparation and extended preparation ) . Conducting undertaking analysis of the full work procedure, non merely the partsinvolving the clinical information system. Performing user surveies of preliminary paper and pencil paradigms with typical users. Conducting iterative serviceability testing of consecutive paradigms. Visiting infirmaries and other scenes of usage to detect the work procedure, usage of predecessor systems, and beta-test installing Surveies statistics: There is scarce of surveies sing EMR usage in Indian context. Results of some relevant surveies are as follows- Consequence of a research done by Sequist et Al was as follows- The overall response rate was 56 % . Of reacting clinicians, 66 % felt that the EHR execution procedure was positive. One-third ( 35 % ) believed that the EHR improved overall quality of attention, with many ( 39 % ) feeling that it decreased the quality of the patient-doctor interaction. One-third of clinicians ( 34 % ) reported consistent usage of electronic reminders, and self-report that EHRs improve quality was strongly associated with increased use of the EHR ( odds ratio 3.03, 95 % assurance interval 1.05-8.8 ) . The bulk ( 87 % ) of clinicians felt that information engineering could potentially better quality of attention in rural and underserved scenes through the usage of tools such as on-line information beginnings, telemedicine plans, and electronic wellness records. In a survey conducted in the United States, the most normally cited barriers to utilize of EMR systems in infirmaries were unequal capital for purchase ( 74 % ) , care costs ( 44 % ) , opposition on the portion of doctors ( 36 % ) , ill-defined return on investing ( 32 % ) , and deficiency of handiness of trained staff ( 30 % ) . Hospitals that had adopted EMR systems were less likely to mention four of these five concerns ( all except doctors ‘ opposition ) as major barriers to acceptance than were infirmaries that had non adopted such systems. When most of the infirmaries or professionals speaking approximately high cost of EMR, a cost benefit analysis of EMR in primary attention done by Wang et Al shows, In the 5-year cost-benei ¬?t theoretical account ( Table 3 ) , the net benei ¬?t of implementing a full electronic medical record system was $ 86,400 per supplier. Of this sum, nest eggs in drug outgos made up the largest proportion of the benei ¬?ts ( 33 % of the sum ) . Of the staying classs, about half of the entire nest eggs came from decreased radiology use ( 17 % ) , decreased charge mistakes ( 15 % ) and betterments in charge gaining control ( 15 % ) . Though non all benei ¬?ts of an electronic medical record are mensurable in i ¬?nancial footings ; other benei ¬?ts include improved quality of attention, reduced medical mistakes, and better entree to information.CURRENT SCENARIO IN INDIAThe Department of Information Technology ( DIT ) , Ministry of Communication an Information Technology ( MCIT ) have funded several undertakings during the past decennary for development of IT based Healthcare solutions. During the class of these undertakings, the demand for a standard EHR for the state has been strongly felt for interoperable health-care solutions. During the meetings of the National Knowledge Commission for making the national wellness information sciences vision for India, the demand for standard EHR with unafraid storage and entree of EHRs in a storage system crossing. TheA currentA wayA ofA developingA andA usingA healthcareA informationA storeA systemsA hasA led toA aA chaoticA stateA ofA affairsA dueA toA followingA grounds: aˆ? TheyA haveA beenA developedA independentlyA andA doA notA easilyA interoperateA withA each other. aˆ? TheyA followA theirA ownA conventionA ofA making, A maintaining, A andA storingA Electronic HealthA RecordsA ( EHRs ) A ofA patients. aˆ? IfA aA patientA isA treatedA atA differentA hospitalsA atA differentA cases, A differentA EHRs areA generatedA andA storedA forA theA sameA patientA byA theA twoA differentA information systemsA inA useA atA theA twoA hospitals.A AA singleA EHRA forA anA individualA isA desirable irrespectiveA ofA his/herA timeA andA placeA ofA intervention. aˆ? EachA systemA hasA itsA ownA wayA ofA creatingA andA managingA itsA storageA ofA EHRs. Obviously, A such A an A information A shop A is A based A on A both A relational A database engineering, A due A to its A ubiquitousness A and A adulthood A in A pull offing A big A volume A of information, A andA mediaA storageA package, A forA exampleA XrayA pictureA file awaying. DifferentA systemsA useA differentA relationalA databasesA andA differentA mediaA storage softwareA makingA dataA transferA acrossA systemsA impossible/inconvenient. aˆ? MostA ofA theA existingA systemsA useA centralizedA storage, A leadingA toA limitedA scalability andA poorA reliabilityA ( singleA pointA ofA failure ) . AsA aA consequence, A itA hasA becomeA difficultA toA exchangeA EHRsA acrossA differentA systemsA andA to haveA aA unifiedA informationA systemA toA dealA withA oneA EHRA perA person, A irrespective ofA theA timeA andA placeA ofA treatmentA ofA anA person.

Critical Thinking Midterm Notes

Pseudoscience is where a claim is set forth as a reason for believing another claim but that is either logically irrelevant to the truth of the other claim or otherwise fails to provide reasonable support. In this part of the course we are beginning to examine arguments, or, stated more accurately, â€Å"would-be arguments,† where people advance reasons for their beliefs that In fact do not support them. There are two mall types of pseudoscience: those that appeal to emotions and those constructed Like real arguments but failing In the essential task of providing real support.Lessons 10 and 1 1 will examine extemporaneousness types that appeal to emotions. Lesson 12 will study extemporaneousness types constructed Like real arguments. Because extemporaneousness Is defined negatively (what It Is not) It does not lend Itself to technical categorization. The classification offered In these lessons are not exhaustive and may overlap or fall to capture precisely what has gone wrong In an argument. While we must have a common language to communicate about different types of pseudoscience, the point of these lessons is to alert you to a number of ways in which reasoning fails.When you have finished this course, you may quickly forget the many names and labels but remain alert to failures in reasoning. Common Forms of Pseudoscience/Fallacies 1 . Smokescreen/Red Herring 2. The Subjectivist Fallacy 3. Appeal to Belief 4. Common Practice 5. Peer Pressure and Bandwagon 6. Wishful Thinking 7. Scare Tactics 8. Appeal to Pity 9. Apple Polishing 10. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm 11 . Appeal to Anger or Indignation 12. Two Wrongs Make a Right The above list is not exhaustive. Each will be explained In the next section. Definitions/Descriptions of Extemporaneousness Types 1 .Smokescreen/Red Herring: Most pseudonymous Introduce Irrelevant considerations Into a discussion, but a smokescreen or red herring does not fit Into one of the more specific categories. Typically It Inv olves the deliberate Introduction of Irrelevant topic or consideration In order to throw the discussion off course. Example: Professor Conway complains of Inadequate parking on our campus. Duty did you know that last year Conway carried on a torrid love affair with a member of the English Department? Enough said about Conway. Notice the change from the stoic of inadequate parking to the irrelevant topic of a torrid love affair 2.The Subjectivist Fallacy: The structure of this fallacy is â€Å"That may be true for you, but it is not for me,† fact and matters of opinion. In the subjective world of pure opinion (for example, what I think of a particular movie), I am entitled to my opinion. However, in the objective world of facts (for example, the day of the week), I do not enjoy the same latitude. I am not entitled to my own facts. 3. Appeal to Belief: The pattern is: â€Å"X is true because everyone (many people, most societies, others) think that it is true. † It is a distorted version of the reasonable practice of accepting the claim from a seasonable authority.Because people may in fact be experts on a subject, you must take care in distinguishing between good and bad versions of this reasoning. For example, â€Å"Physicians consider food high in saturated fat unsafe,† is a good appeal to belief. On the other hand, â€Å"Physicians consider overseas stocks unsafe,† is a bad appeal to belief. 4. Common Practice is where an action is defended by calling attention to the fact that the action is a common one (not to be confused with appeals for fair play). It seeks to Justify an action on the grounds of its familiarity or typicality.It differs from appeal to belief in that it specifically aims at calling an action acceptable, without mentioning the beliefs people may have about what they commonly do. The most common form of this pseudoscience is, â€Å"Everyone does it. † For example, â€Å"Everyone cheats on their taxes,† is used as Justification for me cheating on my taxes. 5. Peer Pressure/Bandwagon is a pattern of pseudoscience in which you are in effect threatened with rejection by your friends, relatives, etc. , if you don't accept a certain claim. People often act in a certain way because their friends do.A rood has often been swept up behind a candidate or consumer product, the victim of fashion. But this behavior in itself is not pseudoscience. When you go along with friends or a mob to gain social acceptance, you are reasoning correctly about what will get you accepted, whether or not that acceptance is what is best. The phenomenon turns into pseudoscience only when one cites the peers' or crowd's activity as a reason for the truth of a claim. Voting for the most popular political candidate in order to feel at one with your community is, though unwise perhaps, not pseudoscience.Arguing that the candidate is the best one on the grounds of that popularity is pseudoscience. 6. Wishful Thinki ng: Believing that something is true because you want it to be true (or believing that it is false because you don't want it to be true). For example, I refuse to believe that too much exposure to the sun causes skin cancer, because I would have to give up my habit of sunbathing at the beach. 7. Scare Tactics is a pattern of pseudoscience in which someone says, in effect, â€Å"X is so because of Y (where Y induces fear in the listener). The emotion being appealed to is fear. However, you need to watch for the difference between Justified and unjustified appeals to fear. â€Å"If you don't check your parachute before Jumping out of the plane, you may die† is an excellent argument. But the pressure used by car salesperson, for example, indicating that the deal offered is only available today usually involves scare tactics, the inducing of fear in order to make a sale. 8. Appeal to Pity is where someone tries to induce acceptance of a claim by eliciting compassion or pity.The appeal to pity works exactly like a scare tactic, except for the different emotions at stake. As in the appeal to pity, this appeal becomes pseudoscience when the pity is irrelevant. Logic and Critical Thinking does not hold to the notion that you can show no pity and pity is not always irrelevant! 9. Reason for accepting a claim. ( It also has less â€Å"flattering† names! ) Note that apple polishing can take subtle forms, for example, â€Å"You're too intelligent to believe in mental telepathy. † Appeals to flattery have fewer legitimate versions than the last two (appeals to fear and pity), but they do exist.For example, â€Å"You should wear the gold sweater instead of the red one, because it brings out your beautiful eyes. 10. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm is a pattern of pseudoscience in which ridicule is disguised as a reason for rejecting a claim. It is a way to avoid arguing about a position by simply laughing at it. â€Å"Support the Equal Rights Amendment? Sure, as soon as the ladies start buying the drinks! Ha, ha, ha. † Rush Lumbago relies heavily on this one. 11. Appeal to Anger or Indignation: A pattern of pseudoscience in which someone tries to induce acceptance of a claim by arousing indignation or anger.It obscures the relevant issues by arousing one's anger, particularly at some person or group. Keep in mind that expressions of anger (like emotionally charged language) do not by themselves make something an appeal to anger or indignation. The appeal to anger or indignation counts as pseudoscience because it reverses the appropriate relationship between wrongdoing and anger. It is one thing to get angry because you see something wrong being done; but the appeal to anger tries to make you call something wrong because you feel angry.Most commonly, such appeals arouse anger against a person before getting to the specifics of the argument, rather than giving vent to indignation after showing that something wrong as been done, a common tactic in the rhetoric of politicians. 12. Two Wrongs Make a Right pattern: â€Å"It's acceptable to A to do X to B because B would do X to A,† said where Ass doing X to B is not necessary to prevent Bi's doing X to A. One Justifies some action that hurts another person on the grounds that the other person has done (or is likely to do) the same kind of harm.Because many people will see Justice in cases of returning harm for harm, this kind of pseudoscience is difficult to distinguish from legitimate reasoning. â€Å"Two wrongs make a right† is not identical with revenge, UT applies specifically to those circumstances in which the revenging act is illegitimate. Responding to rude service at a restaurant by telling your friends not to eat there may be vengeful, but does not fall under this category of pseudoscience. But if you slip out without paying and Justify yourself on the grounds that the waiters were rude, you are engaging in pseudoscience.Unnamed Classi fy the pseudoscience in the following examples: 1 . â€Å"L can't believe the mayor wants to use the Police Department as security guards for our schools. While he's at it, why not have them collect our garbage? 2. Biker: I refuse to buy Japanese motorcycles. I don't believe in doing business with Communist countries. Reporter: But Japan isn't Communist. Biker: Well to me they are. 3. Officer: Excuse me, sir. Do you know how fast you were going? Driver: I never get over the sight of you mounted policemen. How do you leap down off the horse's back so fast? And you must have them well trained, not to run away when you dismount. . â€Å"Dear Editors: When AH Saccharin wrote in to criticize city workers, he didn't mention his occupation. Maybe he's a millionaire without a care in the world, hat he has the time to criticize people working for him if he's even a taxpayer. † 5. Ladies and gentlemen of the Jury: My client stands before you accused of three bank story, who will have a hard time getting food on their table if their daddy goes to prison. 6. My opponent would like to see TV networks label their programming, on the grounds that violent shows make children who watch them violent. But everyone knows a couple of shows can't change your personality. . I had to get a garage built last summer. Who wants to be the last person on the block to park his car in the open air? 8. There must be life on other planets. Imagine how lonely we'll find the universe if we discover that we're the only ones here. 9. Judge Cunningham keeps striking down our state gun control laws. She had better say good-bye to any hopes for a Supreme Court appointment, as long as we have a democrat in the White House. 10. My opponent would like to see TV networks label their programming, on the grounds that violent shows make children who watch them violent.Next they won't allow any shows from France, on the grounds that children who watch them will become French. 11. I'm a disabled Viet nam veteran. Why can I only get a six-month license to sell pretzels from my pushcart? You have to be a foreigner with a green card to make a living in this country. 12. The United States is under no obligation to pay its debts to the United Nations. Here we are, the biggest contributor to the UN budget, and we only get one vote out of 185. 13. How can Moslems be opposed to alcoholic beverages? People have been drinking them since before the beginning of history. 4. Why do you take a bus to work when most people drive? 15. Give that woman a dollar. I see her on this corner every day crying. And she seems to be ill. 16. Ladies and gentlemen, that concludes my proposal. You know that I trust and honor your Judgment. Even if you do not approve my request, I am happy Just to have had the chance to present this proposal to such qualified experts. Thank you. 17. Letter to the editor: Your magazine expresses sympathy for Annie Larson, a putative â€Å"fashion victim† because â€Å" animal rights terrorists† splashed paint on her mink coat.But when I think of those dozens of animals maimed and anally electrocuted to satisfy someone's vanity, I know who the real victims are, and who's he terrorist. Answers to Exercise Questions 1. Horse laugh. 2. Subjective fallacy 3. Apple polishing. This also counts as smokescreen, but that's not the best answer here 4. Appeal to indignation. 5. Appeal to pity. 6. Appeal to belief. 7. No pseudoscience. The person wants to keep up with the neighbors, but is not asserting that a garage is a good thing in itself. 8. Wishful thinking. 9. Scare tactic. 10. Horse laugh 11. Appeal to anger and appeal to pity. 12. Two wrongs make a right 13.Common practice. 14. Common practice. 17. Two wrongs make a right. Unrepresentative Persuasion: An attempt to win acceptance for a claim, but not giving reasons in support. Instead of reasons, devices in the claims themselves are relied upon, such as, emotive language, positive or negative. P olitical campaign literature makes generous use of emotive language, with few reasons presented in support of the issues or candidates. For example, Copal, a conservative Republican support group, developed a directory of words to be used in writing literature and letters, in preparing speeches, and in producing material for the electronic media.When writing about your own candidate r issue, emotively positive words (commonsense, courage, dream, duty, family, strength, truth, vision, liberty) are recommended. However, negatively charged words (betray, cheat, disgrace, failure, excuses, liberal, welfare self-serving) are used when defining your opponent. It is a valuable exercise for this class to examine some campaign literature. You may find some interesting material on the web. If you do, share it with us on the bulletin board. Some words of caution: Our writing should not be boring.An argument couched in emotive language is not necessarily false, but nuns the risk of adding more heat than clarity to the issue. Using the information in this section increase sensitivity to the difference between illegitimate unrepresentative persuasion and appropriate use of lively or emotively charged language. Slattern: Linguistic device used to affect opinions, attitudes, and behavior without argumentation. I t does not necessarily mean that slattern mislead, rather we primarily examine slattern to become aware of the shadings of language.Good arguments may come in slanted language, but such arguments should not be accepted uncritically. 1 . Euphemisms (good sounds) are words used as substitutes for expressions that may offend, for example, naturalization is substituted for assassination, freedom fighters for guerrillas. By substituting guerrillas with the emotively positive words â€Å"freedom fighters,† emotively positive words, you want to build support for them. Euphemisms are entirely acceptable when they foster civility or diplomacy, for example, â€Å"passin g away† as opposed to â€Å"died† when speaking of a recent bereavement. . Dismisses: The opposite of euphemism is dismisses, that is, words are used to produce a negative effect or attitude. For example, freedom fighter is a euphemism for guerrilla or terrorist, while terrorist, a negatively charged word, is a dismisses. 3. Persuasive comparisons, definitions, and explanations are used to slant what they say. A persuasive comparison slants, positively or negatively, by linking our feeling about a person or thing to the person or thing we compare it to: â€Å"Her complexion is as pale as whale blubber,† or â€Å"Her complexion is like new fallen snow. 4. A persuasive definition uses loaded language when defining a term: â€Å"Abortion is the killing of innocent human life,† or â€Å"Abortion is a safe and effective reoccurred for relieving a woman of an unwanted burden. † To facilitate seeing an issue from all sides, avoid definitions that slant th e discussion. 5. Persuasive explanations use similarly loaded language to tell the reason for an event: â€Å"He lost the fight because he lost his nerve† or â€Å"He lost because he was too cautious. † 6. Assuming that every member of the class has the same set of characteristics: â€Å"All women are poor managers,† or â€Å"All liberals are fiscally irresponsible. † 7. Innuendo involves the insinuation of something derogatory: â€Å"She is competent, in many ways,† r â€Å"He told the truth – this time,† or â€Å"Far be it from me to suggest that my opponent is lying. † 8. A loaded question follows the logic of innuendo, illegitimately suggesting something through the very existence of the question: â€Å"When did you stop beating our wife. The secret to understanding loaded questions is to recognize that there are two questions involved. In the example above the two questions are 1) Did you beat your wife, and 2) When did y ou stop beating her. The loaded question illegitimately assumes a positive answer to number 1) and then illegitimately expects n answer to number 2). 9. A weaseled is a linguistic method of watering down or weakening of a claim in order to spare it criticism. Words like â€Å"may† and â€Å"possibly,† and qualifying phrases like â€Å"as far as we know† or † within reasonable limits,† are some common examples of weasels afoot.Weasels, often used in advertising, suck out all the strength a claim to the point of saying little or nothing: â€Å"Three out of four dentists surveyed recommend sugarless gum for their patients who chew gum. â€Å". 10. A downplayed is a linguistic device to make something seem less important than it ally is: â€Å"Evolution is merely a theory,† or using such words as â€Å"however† and â€Å"although. † 11. Proof surrogates: expressions used to suggest there is evidence or authority for a claim without citing it. For example, â€Å"informed sources,† â€Å"it's obvious that† or â€Å"studies show. When writing research papers be careful to cite your sources and avoid the charge of proof surrogate. 12. Hyperbole is an extravagant overstatement. For example, describing a hangnail as a major injury, or a teenager describing parents as â€Å"fascists† because of a midnight curfew. Note: Is there a method for telling one kind of slanted from another? You will find that the distinctions are partial, often overlapping, and to some extent vague. The organization of slattern into types is meant to assist critical reasoning, not to replace it with role acts of labeling.In order to arrive at the best name for the slanted in a given example, eliminate those possibilities whose very form gives them away: A loaded question must be in the form of a question; a persuasive comparison is a comparison; persuasive definitions and explanations are definitions and explanations be fore they are anything else. If none of these categories fits the example, the slanted assuming there is one – must be euphemism, dismisses, stereotype, innuendo, weaseled, downplayed, hyperbole, or proof surrogate. So, look for the obvious structural cues, loaded (emotive) language, and the intended effects.The process of elimination will lead you to the best description of the slanted. Exercise 9-1 Determine which of the numbered, italicized words and phrases are used as slattern in the following passage: The big money guys (1) who have smuggled (2) the Rancho Vaccine development onto the November ballot will stop at nothing to have this town run Just exactly as they want (3). It is possible (4) that Rancho Venin will cause traffic congestion on the east side of town, and it's perfectly clear that (5) the number of houses that will be built will overload the sewer system. But (6) a small number of individuals have taken up the fight. 7.Can the developers be stopped in their desire Innuendo, dismisses 1. Dismisses, 2. Hyperbole 3. Weaseled 4. Proof surrogate 5. No slanted in this instance. 6. Loaded question. See if you can identify the two questions involved. Exercise 9-2 Identify any slattern you find in the following selections: 1. It's possible that your insurance agent misfiled your claim. Surely he would not have lied to you about it. 2. â€Å"National Health Care: The compassion of the IRS and the efficiency of the post office, all at Pentagon prices. † 3. We'll have to work harder to get Representative Burger reelected because of this little run-in with the law. . During World War II, the United States government resettled many people of Japanese ancestry in internment camps. 5. Morgan has decided to run for state senator. I'm sorry to hear that he's decided to become a politician. 6. I'll tell you what capitalism is: Capitalism is Charlie Manson tinting in Folsom Prison for all those murders and still making a bunch of bucks off T- shir ts promoted by Guns N' Roses. Answers to Exercise 9-2 1 . Innuendo (bringing up the subject of lying while being able to deny that the accusation is being made). 2. Persuasive definition. 3.Euphemism (little run-in with the law). 4. Euphemism (resettled, and internment camps), To statement avoids the fact that Japanese were forced into concentration camps, not resettled voluntarily. 5. No slanted. You might disagree! Give your input on the bulletin board or by e-mail. 6. Persuasive definition. Information Tailoring and the News One major way of influencing a person's behavior or attitude is select the information one receives. In an open society it is difficult to dictate the information people receive. At the same time, if you get your information from one source this is what happens.The best way of defending yourself against unrepresentative persuasion is to be well informed and to read widely, using many sources. We get most of our information on a daily basis from the mass media BBC, CBS, NBC, CNN and the major newspapers. A newspaper professes to present the facts objectively. However, all information must pass through the subjective mind, so objectivity is an ideal rather than a strict reality. The tabloids do not strive for the same level of objectivity by checking their sources. The same can be said for many of the TV news magazine programs, which have grown in popularity in recent years.From the television stations point of view, they are an excellent source of profits, because they are cheap to produce and remain popular for a dwindling audience. Keep in mind that the media are private businesses and as such are in the business of making money. For his reason the media cannot afford to offend their constituents: readers, advertisers, or the government, who provides them with licenses to operate or can make life difficult by withholding information, and the over zealous application of tax laws. Main stream views are promoted, while the controversial i s left to smaller news stories.Most of the information is given to them in press releases from politicians, Congress, the White House, local police forces, and local city halls. Companies of any size also issue press releases on a regular basis. A new source of information is the WWW. You might take the opportunity in this course of taking a look at the web site of newspapers in other parts of the world and compare how a particular story is covered differently than in the U. S. Media. Also, peruse your local newspaper and note where their information comes from.You may be surprised to see that much of the information is from other newspapers around the country and from UPS and other news wire services. CNN is a major news source for local TV newscasts. Beware of media bias, slanting, playing up and playing down of stories, sensational headlines, and the use of emotive language. Advertising: Advertising is useful to sell products, sell political candidates and ideas, make announcemen ts, and so on. It also is a major offender in engaging in unrepresentative persuasion. Ads often exaggerate, mislead and even lie.Some products are advertised so heavily that they skew choices. The psychology of ads is that they play on our fears, desires, prejudices and weaknesses. No expense is spared, and weasel words (fights bad breath, helps control dandruff with regular use, gets dishes virtually spotless) are generously used, especially in the fine print. There re two basic kinds of ads: those that give reasons, and those that do not. All ads are guilty of suppressed evidence, that is, they never give you sufficient information about a product whether it be a commodity or political candidate (30 second spots, for example).Ads will never tell you what is wrong with the product (for example, the commonly experienced mechanical problems of a particular model car). Ads give weak promises (your clothes will be â€Å"brighter† if you use a particular soap), use vague compari sons (good, better, best), and make illegitimate appeals to the authority of the rood (most people use the product) or to the authority of a particular individual (Steve Young in the ad for David). Ads that provide reasons, promise ads, submit reasons for buying the product. They tell us more than that the product exists, but not much more.Usually the promises are vague (Gillie's gin promising â€Å"more gin taste†). So, even ads that present reasons for buying a product do not in themselves justify our purchase of the item. If I have done all my homework ahead of time and then see a particularly good price on an item in an ad, then I would be Justified in eying the product – assuming I have a genuine need of it. Ads invite us to think fallaciously, which we will see more about in the next three lessons. There is no substitute for the application of the skills of logic and critical thinking, especially a careful analysis of unrepresentative persuasion. N advertising. E xercise You might take a particular ad that you like and see how it measures up under the scrutiny of logic and critical thinking. Feel free to share your findings on the bulletin board! Pseudoscience 2 Introduction: Many of the common types of pseudoscience go by the name of fallacy. As a rule, Hess attempts at argumentation do not begin with a psychological response to an issue (whether relevant to the truth of the claim or not). In many cases -false dichotomy, slippery slope they follow the structure of a good argument, but hominid, the pseudoscience resembles a smokescreen.The speaker makes a genuine argument, but one that lacks a proper connection with the truth-claim at hand. The categories presented here cover the most frequently occurring kinds of pseudoscience. These occur so frequently, in fact, that the major terms have entered everyday spoken English. The pseudoscience covered in this lesson often assembles good reasoning more than the examples presented in earlier lesso ns. These cases contain few or no appeals to emotion or other psychological motive. Very often the fallacies listed here garble the structure of a good argument, and may even be altered to become good arguments.Pseudoscience Types Part 2 1. Ad Hominid including Personal Attack, Circumstantial Ad Hominid, Sedimentation indisposing the Well. 2. Genetic Fallacy 3. Burden of Proof including Appeal to Ignorance 4. Straw Man 5. False Dilemma including Perfectionist Fallacy and Line-Drawing Fallacy 6. Slippery Slope 7. Begging the Question. Each will be defined/described in the following section Pseudoscience 2 – Definitions/Descriptions Ad Hominid Basic to the ad hominid (to the person) fallacy is the confusing of the message with the messenger.A claim or an argument is rejected because of some fact about the author or source of the claim or argument. The fallacy can take a number of forms, but they all share a confusion (often deliberate) between the truth of a claim under discuss ion and the person or group who put it forward. Since people may hold true beliefs even when their characters are unreliable, or when they belong to a group hat automatically holds those beliefs, the ad hominid dismissal is pseudoscience. The most obvious form of the ad hominid is the personal attack.As the name indicates, it maligns a person in order to dismiss the person's beliefs; there is something about the person who put forward the argument we do not like or of whom we disapprove. The circumstantial ad hominid attempts to discredit a person's claim or argument by referring to the person's circumstances rather than the claim or argument. This after becomes abusive, for example, â€Å"Of course he thinks the economy's fine. He's a Republican, and they don't care about poor people. But abusive treatment to the group in question is not essential to a circumstantial ad hominid. My doctor says that homeopathic cures don't work, but that's what they get drilled into them in medical school. † You may like your doctor despite saying this; but though the statement contains no abuse, it becomes an ad hominid by refusing to consider the truth of the doctor's opinion. A more complex form of ad hominid is sedimentation. The pattern is : â€Å"l reject your claim because you act as if you think it is false,† or â€Å"You can't make the claim now because you have in the past rejected t. † In this case, one dismisses a claim on the grounds of the other person's inconsistency.Inconsistency does bring down a claim or argument , if a person is advocating both a truth-claim and its denial at the same time. For example, when I it wears down my organs, you can dismiss my claims on the basis of their inconsistency. One variety of sedimentation is where the contradiction between two beliefs reaches back to something a person said in the past: â€Å"How can you say caffeine makes people sleepless, when back in high school I remember you claiming it had no e ffect at all? Another more common variety finds an inconsistency between people's statements and their behavior. You may say you are against drugs, but I notice you drinking alcohol everyday. † The person may be a hypocrite, but drugs can be dangerous nevertheless. Poisoning the well, another form of ad hominid, attempts to discredit in advance what a person might claim by relating unfavorable information about the person. Poisoning the well has the effect of giving anything else that person says an unreliable sound; thus you may think of it as blanket ad hominid in advance. The fact that a person is on death row and committed many murders does not dismiss that person's argument against the death penalty; the argument stands on its own merits.Genetic fallacy: The belief that a perceived defect or deficiency in the origin of a thing discredits the thing itself. Strictly speaking, the ad hominid is a specific form of the genetic fallacy. It rejects a claim solely on the grounds of its source, its origins, or its associations. In conversation, the genetic fallacy may sound as broad as â€Å"You Just think that's wrong because you were brought up that way. † Burden of Proof: A form of pseudoscience in which the burden of proving a point is placed on the wrong side, or places the burden of proof more heavily on one side than it should be.One version occurs when a lack of evidence on one side is taken as evidence for the other side, in cases where the burden of proving the point rests on the latter side. Often a discussion of some issue can turn into a discussion of which side faces the greater burden of proof. It helps to have reasonable grounds for assigning the burden of proof properly. All other things being equal, the greater burden of proof sets with someone whose claim has less initial plausibility. Suppose one person claims that the earth is flat, while another denies it.This claim will strike most people as implausible, so the first person face s the greater burden of proof. All other things being equal, the greater burden of proof rests with someone making an affirmative claim, rather than with the one denying that claim. Be careful when someone defends an affirmative claim by throwing the burden onto the other side, calling a claim true simply because it has not been shown to be false. This special variety of ruder-of-proof pseudoscience is called an appeal to ignorance (for example, God exists because no one has proved the opposite. Straw Man: The Straw Man pseudoscience is where someone ignores an opponent's actual position and presents in its place a distorted, exaggerated, or misrepresented version of that position. There is a deliberate distorting of an opponent's position in order to make it easier to attack. A straw man fallacy typically involves a smokescreen, because recasting another person's opinion in distorted form amounts to changing the subject. At the same time, such faulty thinking can occur without any intent to

Friday, August 30, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy Essay

The term ‘democracy’, like many other political terms, was first discovered in Ancient Greece. It consists of two short words: ‘demos’ which means either ‘a citizen in a particular city-state’ or ‘the lower orders’, and ‘kratos’ which means either ‘rule’ or ‘power’ – but these two are not of the same meaning. The original meaning of democracy is the rule by the poor or by the rabble. Aristotle had a clear argument stating that a rich majority would not be able to govern fairly (Arblater, 2002). This essay aims to identify advantages of modern democracy-based governments, such as equality for men and women, free press and media and totalitarianism as well as provide criticism in terms of the two systems. Democracy has become the subject of various debates, with the supporters claiming that it is the most appropriate form of government nowadays because it guarantees constitutional rights for people. Moreover, democracy can create a positive structure for economic development as it provides free trade relationships between countries. The main purposes of democracy are presented in the way of core constitutional rights, such as a right to vote, equality of rights for men and women, freedom of speech and expression and, last but not least, personal sovereignty. All these elements are required for the modern society. For this reason, a democratic government aims to meet these requirements in order to satisfy its people. A governmental structure based on the principles of democracy, which is established well enough in the Western countries and Europe, has been developing for more than four centuries and has been absorbing and leaving essential requirements, for instance constitutional rights for all citizens, for further evolution of democracy. Today, democratic countries, for example Great Britain, provide sovereignty to all citizens regardless of their religion, race or social status. The main way of providing population with the elements required for a democracy is a straight dialogue between the government and people and apprehending the latter’s needs and desires. (Arblaster, 2002) Furthermore, press and media is one of the most important aspects of the modern democracy. However, there are still some countries with a democratic status but with issues in this particular field. These areas are partly or totally controlled by governmental agencies and authorities. The leading position in the non-democratic behavior is held by the Arab countries. The information released by Freedom House in October 2010 demonstrates that the closure of the Nichane newspaper, one of the most open-minded Arabic language weeklies, was another strong blow to the freedom of press in Morocco. The main reason for the closure was a systematic multi-year boycott as a result of controversial reports about the company run by the Moroccan Royal family, Omnium Nord-African Group. The Freedom of Expression Officer at Freedom House, has emphasized the issue in this area by saying that: â€Å"Authorities are increasingly using economic manipulation to punish and intimidate independent or critical media†. Currently, the impacts of democracy play an integral role in active economy. Aspects such as private property, competition, and fair market – which are guaranteed to the society in democratic countries today – create stable economic markets. Additionally, democracy makes trade and market relationships between countries easier in comparison to communistic countries, for example China, where regulations on export and import are still much stricter (Zuzovski, 1998). After the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the way Czech Republic managed to recreate from the situation in a quick and positive manner is a great example of economical benefits in democracy-based states. The principal changes, like privatization of businesses, liquidation of monopolized external trade and regulation of the market prices took place in Czech Republic between 1989 and 1992. Moreover, willingness to open the door to investments from abroad in Czech Republic led to redevelopment of industries and infrastructures in just 20 years. Thus, for example, United States have been investing in to Czech Republic economy since 2008 and in 2011 a contribution worth $5. 41 billion was made. These investments have hepled in support of infrastructure and industry within the country, and allowed the Czech Republic to become one of the strongest economics in Western Europe (U. S. Departament of State, 2012). An example like this could make a nation more faithful in democracy-based government structures. However, opponents argue that total democracy can face issues like fascism and discrimination purely because some people might think that it is in their right to divide people by race, nationality or religion. In addition, the opponents claim that an alternative political structure for democracy can be totalitarianism, which establishes a society with paper-based democracy but no dignity of an individual rights in practice. Totalitarianism has been cited as totally opposite system to democracy. The supporters claim that totalitarianism creates an ideally structured government and society. The philosophy of totalitarianism simply rejects the independence of an individual and instead substitutes it with the notion of collectivity. It only targets needs and interests of the society as a whole. However, the totalitarian regime controls private lives of people, which includes belief, tastes, and many other parts of the life. In the times of the Soviet Union, private life of all citizens was totally controlled by the governmental agencies. The rights of the people were complied, but only on paper and not in practice. However, in reality, citizens’ dignity was hijacked. Salient features of Soviet Union society was illusory and fictitious nature of the represented world. Members of some social groups had privileges, but members of other groups did not have a right to a passport, to walk on particular streets, or to use holiday resorts (Todorov, 2003). In addition, Todorov (2003) argues that the totalitarianism in post-communist Commonwealth of Independant States republics led to corrupt political institutions, and it had ravaged the economy, the environment and human souls. To demonstrate corruption rate in one of post-communist countries, Holmes (2009) claims that in the first decade after collapse of the Soviet Union, the corruption rate in Russian reached 2. 7 per cent. Moreover, there have been widespread concerns that democracy might have influenced people’s behavior towards each other. This might be based on difference and unequal treatment in terms of race, gender or ethnicity. U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (n. d. ) reported statistics, which claims that in the beginning of 21st century race discrimination was 36. %, however in 2011 this figure decreased for almost one per cent and became 34. 5%. Furthermore, the fact Benhabib (1996) suggests that the discrimination rate in the United States has decreased in the past ten years, and it works because of the positive treatment of people regardless of their gender, race, background or ethnic identity within the country. However, the core definition of democracy, which was mentioned above, sometimes cannot be used as a plain and uncompleted term. One of the problems is the relation between the idea and reality. The contemporary reality sometimes does not correspond with the idea of the classic notions of democracy. For instance, does the fact that the government is elected by the people mean that the system is a democratic one? Thus, when Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany, he did it through a constitutional process, as the leader of the Nazi party, who gained 43. 9% at Reichstag. Few people could complain about legitimacy of the German elections in 1933 but yet not many would be able to describe the Third Reich as a democratic governor. Arblaster (2002) argues that the best remedy for this might be to revise the concept of democracy itself to suit it to real modern society. In addition, Arblaster (2002) suggests that society should not follow these mistakes, committed in the past. Moreover, Modern democracy is, in fact, capitalistic. It is rule of the capitalists. Electioneering is carried out with money. The rich candidates purchase votes. Might of economic power rules over the whole process. The net result is that we get plutocracy under the garb of democracy-democracy in name and form, plutocracy in reality. It cares a fig for the common man. The rich hold the media and use it for their own benefit. Big business houses influence dailies and use these dailies for creating public opinion to their favour. Influence of moneyed people over politics is probably clear in England, America and India. Consequently, communists don’t accept it democracy at all. Socialist democracy is democracy in the right sense of the term because the welfare of the labour class and farming community can be safeguarded properly only under socialist democracy. (Tusha Jupta, 2012) In conclusion, for reasons identified and described above, democracy should be viewed as a prosperous and useful way of governing a country because it is also relatively peaceful for co-existence of individuals, society as a whole, and the government. In comparison to totalitarianism, democracy has significant positive factors, such as economic structure, easier trade relationships, constitutional rights, which in totalitarian countries are stricter and more limited. Nonetheless, it should be pointed out that democracy still has problems that need to be addressed, especially the ones in press and media sector.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Chinese, Japanese, and Korean environmental activists use of Essay - 21

Chinese, Japanese, and Korean environmental activists use of Borderless Media - Essay Example From this study it is clear that the only information that is availed to the public in one way or the other is usually presented in scientific jargon as well as in technical reports aimed at making the environmental information incomprehensible to the media fraternity thus gagging their ability to spread the information throughout the public domain. A good as well as a practical example is indicated by the fact that the appraisal report, the evaluation report and the impact-assessment report of big projects like dams are normally treated by the national government as confidential and the same case applies to international loaning agencies that are funding these projects. According to the paper there are numerous unfolding difficulties that are faced by the activists and the media fraternity in their efforts to inform the public on issues facing the environment. These however does not deter the Asian environmental activists as well as the Asian group in stepping up their efforts of in forming the public on matters that are environmentally sensitive and which affect government decisions. According to Redclift, as the years go by the environmental issues are in one way or the other considered to be non-sensitive issues. This has changed the whole of reporting scenery of these issues as they are reported regularly thereby making them to be obvious. The Chinese local newspaper in particular has been under intense pressure from the government to refrain from critically reporting on issues that pertain to the environment.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Managing Across Cultures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Managing Across Cultures - Essay Example This concept of diversity in a workforce is something experience in any organization worldwide. It is then common to find many published articles and other news articles addressing the issue of management across cultures in many organizations (Fitzgerald, 1997).I found a news article titled â€Å"Looking Another Culture in the Eye† and it had an interesting story about the Japanese culture in relation to business management and decision making. The author of the article explains how different all over the world perceive situations in different ways especially when in a work place. According to Meyer (2014), while giving a talk to managers in Japan, the author of that Japanese do not make a direct contact which other more often and it is way of life there in Japan. This culture therefore, affected the author’s communication with the group of managers and so he was not able to find out if there was any person who wanted to comment on his talk. In regards to this, it is clear that cultural diversity affects communication in several workplaces. This therefore influences the flow of information and sharing of business ideas that are important in making business decisions. There is also the case of workmates form different cultures in the article. Americans claimed that their French workmates were chaotic and always disorganized while Indian also claimed that the same persons were inadaptable (Meyer, 2014). This clearly shows the great diversity in the workforce of that particular organization. People from different cultures have their own differences based on the way they communicate, make decisions, lead, persuade and do many other things. Therefore, it is upon the members of a work force to understand and embrace each other’s cultural differences to ensure peaceful coexistences in their various workplaces. The business managerial

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Costa Rica Geography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Costa Rica Geography - Essay Example Electronic products are one type of products exported by Costa Rica and it is mainly Intel products. Despite the bug plague, Costa Rica still remains as a major banana exporter. Lastly, although harvested by mostly Nicaraguan migrants, bananas are also another major export product from Costa Rica. Generally from the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica imports medicines. The country also imports petroleum products from other countries in order to finance its industrial operations. Lastly, Costa Rica also imports integrated circuits from other countries as many are needed in the emerging industries of the country. Despite the rich Spanish cultural heritage of the country, Costa Rica is beset with several problems and two are worth mentioning. The first issue, and probably the most important, is deforestation and the destruction of natural resources. There are only few laws to protect the flora and fauna in Costa Rica and many existing laws are not properly enforced. Another thing is that the country does not have a military force thus this poses as a risk for the country. Nevertheless, there is still good quality exports, an equally great tourism industry, and relatively low unemployment and poverty rates plus the beautiful land and water forms. That is still so much to be thankful for. Adams, Becket. â€Å"U.S. Unemployment Down to 6.6 Percent, Labor Participation at 35-Year Low.† 2014. The Blaze. 5 Feb 2014.

Monday, August 26, 2019

A Criminal Profiling Code of Ethics Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

A Criminal Profiling Code of Ethics - Coursework Example As a component of the criminal exploratory procedure, profiling offers depth into crime scene examinations; the mannerism of a criminal is reflective of ones fundamental psychological process. In most instances, the outward show of a scene where a crime has been committed can also disclose vital information concerning the perpetrator's fundamental sociopathy, psychopathy, enduring personality or psychopathology. Profiling is also valuable when trying to find slight commonalities in successive crimes. It has not grown as a tool for identifying a criminal in a case; to a certain extent, it has developed as a way of providing depth to an entire investigation. Profiling assists in undertaking psychological assessments in cases of ambivalent death. In many instances, a profile can help investigators in creating the probability that the death was a consequence of suicidal, natural, homicidal or accidental origin. Profiling can propose new possibilities of investigation, hold up the working hypotheses of criminal investigating officers, develop a structure for cross-examination after suspect arrest, and aid the prosecution or defense in developing a case presentation strategy in the courtroom (R. Holmes, 2009; S. Holmes, 2009). There are a noteworthy number of ethical concerns raised by the need for profiling professionalization. There is no precise training or educational qualifications for one to be labeled a profiler. The absence of training or educational requirements also implies that there are no basic standards for the determination of proficiency; the need for competency standards promotes the failure to either sanction or discipline profiling practitioners who are incompetent or irresponsible. There is no juried structure for practice quantification, there is no conformity as to what the procedure of designing a profile involves, or what a profile should include, and there is no universally acceptable methodology for conducting the process of profiling. This means there is no scientific foundation on which profiling stands, as it cannot undergo analysis and its procedure cannot, as a result, be replicable. On the side of profiling practice, there are many ethical issues connected with the employing of psychological and personality theories as a way of influencing criminal investigation results. Profiling has been depicted by the press as a heroic or romantic occupation, probably ensuing in an inexact view of the role and life of a profiler. Consequently, the field might draw people who are less capable to proficient practice. When not convincingly done, profiling can lead to severe harm or inflict delays in the real resolution of a case by proposing wrong investigation directions. The hunt of suspects who fall in a typology proposed by the profiler which is extremely diverse than that of the real person responsible could also give rise to the arrest or implication of guiltless parties. Lastly, there are no officially acceptable ethical principles for the profiling practice (R. Holmes, 2009; S. Holmes, 2009). Relevance of Victimology to Criminal Profiling Victimology is extremely relevant in criminal profiling because it examines victims as involved in an asymmetric situation or relationship.   "Asymmetry" implies whatever event that is exploitative, unbalanced, alienating, parasitical, destructive, oppressive, or having inbuilt suffering.  For instance, vacationers got lost on one of the nation’s main freeway. Most of their dead bodies were later on found in the National Forest, in varying conditions of decomposition. Some made their trips as couples, others unaccompanied. They were both females and males, aged around 20 to 25. They were

Sunday, August 25, 2019

The Ideas about Masculinity and Femininity in Studying Empire and Essay

The Ideas about Masculinity and Femininity in Studying Empire and British Society - Essay Example The ideas of the survival of the fittest were proclaimed by Herbert Spencer2 and they are relevant to the context of the British Empire development, where males were the privileged class. The most relevant features of masculinity were competition, athleticism, and militant domination. It was a new kind of masculinity, or a colonial masculinity. A Kshatriyan model of masculinity was dominant over Brahmanic masculinity. The British Empire substituted local rituals with colonial traditions in  sub-Saharan Africa and India. They intended to civilize Africans and Indians. In British India female madness was one of the most striking issues. Thomas August refers to the British Colonial woman as to a â€Å"male mad-person"3. The male population was privileged in India by the British Empire. Maccracken-Flesher talks about the greatest social contrast naming them as a "gentlemanly colonial power" to a "feminine Orient."4The colonial India faced with gender differences and the middle Bengali s' were portrayed by the Britons as effeminate and thus politically inacceptable figures. As a result of these social changes introduced by the British Empire, there is no wonder that domestic and exotic issues went hand in hand. The ideas of family belonging and obedience in Indian society were undermined by the British social norms of development. The issues of sex and intimacy play the crucial role in comprehending the peculiarities of the nations’ development. Racial status and the role of the nation were often contrasted. The powers of the nation were challenged by retaining the powers of the national family, the exotic becomes more necessary and exciting than ever and the role of exotic males and females played a crucial role in the development of the British society. Roy Anindio underlines that when the limits and influence of nations were questioned, fears of population movement occurred5. There were many marriages between the Britons and Hindu women, known as Anglo-I ndians, or Eurasians. Nearly 90% of the British in India created such marriages. It is possible to claim that the British society in such a way expanded not only their territory, but also religion. In the end of the eighteenth century Anglo-Indians males were prohibited from military service and it was a great impact caused on the British Empire society. Anglo-Indian community became endogamous and stabilized in 1835. British males in the new world were strong fighters and bachelor settlers. In the East the majority of British men found different opportunities for assimilation and adaptation to the alien societies. They were interested in the native language and native communities6. The wives played a role of companions for their husbands. Their husbands were fighting men and it was necessary to cope with difficulties and to accompany them in difficult trips in the East. When British women had their seven years old children, they sent them to Britain, where education was better. The y often separated themselves from their children in order to prevent their husbands’ romantic relations with the Indian women. In Africa British women lived under dreadful conditions. The British males very often had their black-skinned female lovers and it was a great shock for the British women. The life of the British women in Cape was less difficult. They were served by a large number of servants. The women started playing different roles in the South African

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Report discussing from an administration and security perspective, the Essay

Report discussing from an administration and security perspective, the role and function of SAMBA within a UNIX network - Essay Example Organizations use Linux servers when it comes to the protection, reliability and perfection. Although, the Microsoft has a vast variety of software and products, still Linux based server are maintained for storing research data, financial data, demographics of any sort vice versa. Due to Linux non user friendly environment, it cannot be used for workstations. A Microsoft window is more users friendly and has lots of accessibility options which make it advanced in this compartment. These days most of the organization wants to provide access to the data which has been maintained on the Linux server. Apart from the Linux server, all the servers and workstation are running on the Microsoft Windows environment. The Samba server needs to be installed on either any one of them; it can be installed on Linux server or Microsoft windows server for providing access to the files stored in Linux server. If printing services are required from the Linux machine to the Windows Platform, or either way, the Samba server will do it for you. There are many definitions on the World Wide Web. defines that â€Å"SAMBA is a suite of programs which work together to allow clients to access UNIX file space and printers via the SMB (Session Message Block) protocol†. Another good definition is given on www.Ubuntu .com which states that â€Å"Samba is an implementation of the SMB/CIFS protocol for the Unix systems, providing support for cross-platform file and printer sharing with the Microsoft Windows, the OS X, and the other Unix systems†. The software must contain the source code and there will be no restriction in distribution of the source code. The source code can be easily accessible through a free-of-charge website. The source code must be in a programmable form so that the programmer can modify the software as per requirement. The license must allow a different name or version number of the software if the